Isolation, biotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter isolates from raw milk in Erbil city, Iraq

  • Dhary Alewy Almashhadany | Knowledge University Research Center, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.


This study aimed to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial sensitivity of Campylobacter species in raw milk sold at retail vending in Erbil city. Three hundred and fifty (350) samples were aseptically collected from retail raw milk shops between January and June 2019. For isolation of Campylobacter spp., samples were cultured on selective media and tested for biotype and antimicrobials susceptibility by disk diffusion assay. The overall prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was 12.6%. Campylobacter jejuni was significantly prevalent (65.9%) among other Campylobacter species. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed complete sensitivity to tetracycline, rifampicin, and neomycin. On the other hand, total resistance to ampicillin and trimethoprim was observed. Strikingly, as low as 56.8% and 72.7% of isolates are still sensitive to the drugs of choice in campylobacteriosis treatment; ciprofloxacin and erythromycin respectively. This resistance pattern of Campylobacter found in this study is critically alarming owing to the insusceptibility to the aforementioned antibiotics commonly used as the drugs of choice for campylobacteriosis treatment. Increase in Campylobacter prevalence in raw milk was associated with warm season. These levels prevalence and resistance worth further investigations and effective countermeasures owing to potential public health hazards.



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Original Articles
C. jejuni, C. coli, Antimicrobial susceptibility, Kurdistan region, Retail vending
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How to Cite
Almashhadany DA. Isolation, biotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility of <em>Campylobacter</em&gt; isolates from raw milk in Erbil city, Iraq. Ital J Food Safety [Internet]. 2021Mar.11 [cited 2021Jul.29];10(1). Available from: