Study on endocrine disruptors levels in raw milk from cow’s farms: Risk assessment

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Serena Santonicola *
Maria Carmela Ferrante
Genni di Leo
Nicoletta Murru
Aniello Anastasio
Raffaelina Mercogliano
(*) Corresponding Author:
Serena Santonicola |


Diet represents the primary route for human exposure to bisphenol A (BPA). As endocrine disruptor (ED), BPA has raised concerns about its adverse effects on human health. Therefore, EFSA recommended a tolerable daily intake (t-TDI) of 4 µg/kg bw/day and the EU Regulation n. 2018/213 fixed a specific migration limit (SML) of 0.05 mg/kg for BPA in food from plastic materials intended to come in contact with food. Considering the widespread consumption of milk and milk products, the contamination of dairy products is a matter of public health concern. The aim of the study was to investigate the BPA contamination levels of raw cow’s milk from two farms located in Campania region, Italy. The milk samples (n.22), weekly collected from the cooling tank, were analyzed using liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. In raw milk from both farms, preliminary results showed the occurrence of BPA levels lower than the SML limit, ranging from not detected to 2.34 µg/L. The consumer exposure calculated considering hypothetical raw milk consumption and three possible scenarios was below the t-TDI. BPA could be present in milk due to environmental contamination, and also as a result of the migration from contact materials used during milking and storage. Despite the low levels of exposure through milk consumption, low doses can have lasting effects during human development. Thus, new approaches, methods, and plans should be applied to monitor the ED contamination, such as BPA and other pollutants, and to assure milk safety.

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