Guidelines for Authors

Manuscript will be carefully scrutinized for evidence of plagiarism, duplication and data manipulation; in particular, images will be carefully examined for any indication of intentional improper modification.

Any suspected misconduct ends up with a quick rejection and is then reported to the US Office of Research Integrity.

Ensure that your work is written in correct English before submission.
Professional copyediting can help authors improve the presentation of their work and increase its chances of being taken on by a publisher. In case you feel that your manuscript would benefit from a professional a professional English language copyediting checking language grammar and style, you can find a reliable revision service at:

The Corresponding Author must submit the manuscript online-only through our Manuscript Submission System.

Authors are kindly invited to suggest potential reviewers (names, affilitations and email addresses) for their manuscript, if they wish.

Manuscript preparation

Manuscripts must be written in English language in accordance with the “Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals” defined by The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors ( Manuscripts in Italian language can be published after translation (expenses will be charged to the Authors). Manuscripts must be subdivided into the following sections:

Title page

It must contain:

  1. title;
  2. a short (no more than 40 characters) running head title;
  3. first, middle and last name of each Author without abbreviations;
  4. University or Hospital, and Department of each Author;
  5. last name, address and e-mail of all the Authors;
  6. corresponding Author;
  7. phone and/or fax number to facilitate communication;
  8. acknowledgement of financial support;
  9. list of abbreviations.


The Authors must submit a long English abstract (300 words, 2000 characters). Subheadings are needed as follows: Objective(s), Material and method(s), Result(s), Conclusion(s). After the Abstract, three to ten key words must appear, taken from the standard Index Medicus terminology.


For original articles concerning experimental or clinical studies, the following standard scheme must be followed: Abstract - Key Words - Introduction - Material and Methods - Results - Discussion - Conclusions - References - Tables - Legends - Figures. Case Report should be divided into: Abstract - Introduction (optional) - Case report(s) - Conclusions - References (Discussion and Supplementary Figures, Tables and References can be submitted for publication in Supplementary Materials).

Size of manuscripts

Literature reviews, Editorials and Original articles concerning experimental or clinical studies should not exceed 20 typewritten pages including figures, tables, and reference list (references are to be limited to 20, additional references may be submitted as supplementary materials). Case reports, Notes on surgical technique and Letters to the editors should not exceed 1000 words (Abstract included) with only one table or figure, and no more than three references. No more than five authors are permitted. As an accompaniment to Case reports, Notes on surgical technique and Short Communications manuscripts for the print version of Archivio Italiano di Urologia e Andrologia (AIUA), authors may submit supplementary materials. The material is subject to the same editorial standards and peer-review procedures as the print publication.

Fast-track peer review

We offer fast-track peer review and publication of controlled trials that we judge of importance to practice or research. If you wish to discuss your proposed submission, please write ( or call our editorial office in Milan (+39.02.70608091).


References must be sorted in order of quotation and numbered with arabic digits between parentheses. Only the references quoted in the text can be listed. Journal titles must be abbreviated as in the Index Medicus. Only studies published on easily retrieved sources can be quoted. Unpublished studies cannot be quoted, however articles “in press” can be listed with the proper indication of the journal title, year and possibly volume. References must be listed as follows:

Journal articles
All Authors if there are six or fewer, otherwise the first three, followed by “et al.”. Complete names for Work Groups or Committees. Complete title in the original language. Title of the journal following Index Medicus rules. Year of publication; Volume number: First page. Example: Starzl T, Iwatsuki S, Shaw BW, et al. Left hepatic trisegmentectomy Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1982; 155:21.

Authors of the book - Complete title in the original language. Edition number (if later than the first). City of publication: Publisher, Year of publication.Example: Bergel DIA. Cardiovascular dynamics. 2nd ed. London: Aca­de­mic Press Inc., 1974.

Book chapters
Authors of the chapters - Complete chapter title. In: Book Editor, complete Book Title, Edition number. City of publication: Publisher, Publication year: first page of chapter in the book. Example: Sagawa K. The use of central theory and system analysis. In: Bergel DH (Ed), Cardiovascular dynamics. 2nd ed. London: Aca­demic Press Inc., 1964; 115.


Tables must be aimed to make comprehension of the written text easier. They must be numbered in Arabic digits and referred to in the text by progressive numbers. Every table must be accompanied by a brief title. The meaning of any abbreviations must be explained at the bottom of the table itself. (If sent by surface mail tables must be clearly printed with every table typed on a separate sheet).


(Graphics, algorithms, photographs, drawings). Figures must be numbered and quoted in the text by number. The meaning of all symbols, abbreviations or letters must be indicated. Histology photograph legends must include the enlargement ratio and the staining method. Legends must be collected in one or more separate pages. Please follow these instructions when preparing files:

  • Do not include any illustrations as part of your text file;
  • Do not prepare any figures in Word as they are not workable;
  • Line illustrations must be submitted at 600 DPI;
  • Halftones and color photos should be submitted at a minimum of 300 DPI;
  • Power Point files cannot be uploaded;
  • If at all possible please avoid transmitting electronic files in JPEG format. If this is unavoidable please be sure to save the JPEG at the highest quality available and at the correct resolution for the type of artwork it is PDF files for individual figures may be uploaded.

Manuscript review

Only manuscript written according to the above mentioned rules will be considered. All submitted manuscripts are evaluated by the Editorial Board and/or by two referees designated by the Editors. The Authors are informed in a time as short as possible on whether the paper has been accepted, rejected or if a revision is deemed necessary. The Editors reserve the right to make editorial and literary corrections with the goal of making the article clearer or more concise, without altering its contents. Submission of a manuscript implies acceptation of all above rules.


Authors are responsible for ensuring that all manuscripts are accurately typed before final submission. Galley proofs will be sent to the first Author. Proofs should be returned within seven days from receipt.

Peer-review policy

All manuscripts submitted to our journal are critically assessed by external and/or in-house experts in accordance with the principles of peer review (, which is fundamental to the scientific publication process and the dissemination of sound science. Each paper is first assigned by the Editors to an appropriate Associate Editor who has knowledge of the field discussed in the manuscript. The first step of manuscript selection takes place entirely in-house and has two major objectives: i) to establish the article appropriateness for our journals readership; ii) to define the manuscript priority ranking relative to other manuscripts under consideration, since the number of papers that the journal receives is much greater than it can publish. If a manuscript does not receive a sufficiently high priority score to warrant publication, the editors will proceed to a quick rejection. The remaining articles are reviewed by at least two different external referees (second step or classical peer review). Manuscripts should be prepared according to the Uniform Requirements established by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) (

Authorship and Contributorship
All persons designated as authors should qualify for authorship according to the ICMJE criteria. Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for the content. Authorship credit should only be based on substantial contributions to: i) conception and design, or analysis and interpretation of data, and to ii) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and on iii) final approval of the version to be published; and iv) agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work. Participation solely in the acquisition of funding or the collection of data does not justify authorship. General supervision of the research group is not sufficient for authorship. Authors should provide a brief description of their individual contributions. Those who do not meet all four criteria should not be listed as authors, but they should be acknowledged. Those whose contributions do not justify authorship may be acknowledged individually or together as a group under a single heading. Authors can find detailed information on the Publisher's web site.

Obligation to Register Clinical Trials 
The ICMJE believes that it is important to foster a comprehensive, publicly available database of clinical trials. The ICMJE defines a clinical trial as any research project that prospectively assigns human subjects to intervention or concurrent comparison or control groups to study the cause-and-effect relationship between a medical intervention and a health outcome. Medical interventions include drugs, surgical procedures, devices, behavioral treatments, process-of-care changes, etc. Our journals require, as a condition of consideration for publication, registration in a public trials registry. The journal considers a trial for publication only if it has been registered before the enrollment of the first patient. The journal does not advocate one particular registry, but requires authors to register their trial in a registry that meets several criteria. The registry must be accessible to the public at no charge. It must be open to all prospective registrants and managed by a non-profit organization. There must be a mechanism to ensure the validity of the registration data, and the registry should be electronically searchable. An acceptable registry must include a minimum of data elements ( For example, (, sponsored by the United States National Library of Medicine, meets these requirements.

Protection of Human Subjects and Animals in Research
When reporting experiments on human subjects, authors should indicate whether the procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2013. If doubt exists whether the research was conducted in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration, the authors must explain the rationale for their approach and demonstrate that the institutional review body explicitly approved the doubtful aspects of the study. An Informed Consent statement is always required from patients involved in any experiments. When reporting experiments on animals, authors should indicate whether the institutional and national guide for the care and use of laboratory animals was followed.  Further guidance on animal research ethics is available from the World Medical Association (2016 revision). When reporting experiments on ecosystems involving non-native species, Authors are bound to ensure compliance with the institutional and national guide for the preservation of native biodiversity.