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Introduction: Azoospermia causes about 10% of male infertility and the best therapeutic option is the retrieval of sperm from testis or epididymis. Material and methods: From Juanary 2008 to June 2016, 92 men (median 36 years; range: 25-54 years) were submitted in 47 cases to TESE (testicular sperm extraction) and in 45 cases to PESA (percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration) for secretory and obstructive azoospermia, respectively; moreover, all the patients previously underwent color Doppler ultrasound of the testis and transrectal ultrasound of the prostate. Results: Serum FSH values were 9.4 ml/UI and 36.4 ml/UI (median 18.2 ml/UI) with an estimated volume of the testis equal to 5 ml; 40 men had the mutation for cystic fibrosis with bilateral agenesis of the deferentia vasa, 4 men had a cyst of the prostatic utricle, 1 man had retrograde ejaculation, 7 had an epididymis cyst and 2 had anejaculation secondary to traumatic neurologic spinal cord injury. The retrieval of sperm was performed in 39 (83%) and 36 (80%) of the patients submitted to TESE and PESA, respectively. The pregnancy rate was equal to 28% and 33% in men with secretory and obstructive azoospermia, respectively. Discussion: Assisted reproduction technology with a multidisciplinary team is provided of a pregnancy rate equal about 30% in men with azoospermia; ultrasound allows to evaluate abnormalities of the testis and prostate improving the percentage of pregnancy.
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