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Introduction: Organisms are constantly in a balance meaning that while new cells are produced, some of the older ones die which takes place in 2 ways: necrosis or apoptosis. Apoptosis is the programmed cellular death triggered by intrinsic or extrinsic stimuli. In this study we have evaluated the apoptosis of prostate tissue generated by surgical or medical orchiectomy. Material and Method: In this experimental study, we used 36 adult male rats that were evaluated in 3 groups. The first group (Group 1) consisted of 12 rats that had bilateral orchiectomy; the second group (Group 2) included 12 rats that were given leuprolide acetate and the third group (Group 3) consisted of 12 control rats. Immunohistochemical staining of the prostate of all rats was performed and the presence of glandular atrophy and apoptosis were evaluated in the three groups. The statistical differences between the two groups were evaluated by the Fisher exact test. Results: Glandular atrophy was not determined in any rat of the control group, and the apoptotic staining was in the normal limits in all the control rats. In Leuprolide group, glandular atrophy was mild in 7 cases, and moderate in 3 rats. In 2 rats of the Leuprolide group, atrophy was not demonstrated. In surgical orchiectomy group, glandular atrophy was present in all cases. Atrophy was observed as cystic atrophy. Statistical analysis with the Fisher exact test revealed that glandular atrophy was statistically significantly more common in surgical orchiectomy group compared with Leuprolide group (p = 0,012). Conclusion: If the aim of treatment in androgen dependent prostatic adenocarcinoma or benign prostate hypertrophy is the construction of a robust apoptosis, bilateral orchiectomy generates a more powerful apoptosis compared with Leuprolide.
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