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Objective: Previous reports have suggested that the incidence of spina bifida occulta (SBO) in patients with primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (PMNE) is higher than the general population. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of spina bifida occulta on the medical treatment outcome of PMNE. Material and Methods: Between January 2008 and December 2011, a total of 223 children (151 boys and 72 girls, aged 6-16 years; mean age: 10.1 ± 3.04 years) with PMNE were reviewed retrospectively. All of the children underwent physical examination, urine analysis, urinary tract ultrasonography and kidney ureter bladder (KUB) scout film. All patients were initially treated with a timed voiding program and were given desmopressin acetate when necessary. Results: Spina bifida occulta was detected in 75 children (33.6%). Spina bifida occulta affected L4 in 2 children, L5 in 6 children, L4-L5 in 3 children, S1 in 52 children, S2 in 7 children and S1-S2 in 2 children. Treatment was successful in 79% of the children without SBO, and in only 48% of the children with SBO. Medical treatment success rates differed significantly between the study groups. Conclusion: The presence of spina bifida occulta significantly affects the response to medical treatment in patients with PMNE. Thus, verifying spina bifida occulta status in PMNE can facilitate prognostic predictions about the response to medical treatment.
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