Journal of Xenobiotics <p>The <strong>Journal of Xenobiotics</strong> publishes original studies concerning the beneficial (pharmacology) and detrimental effects (toxicology) of <em>xenobiotics</em> in all organisms. A xenobiotic (“stranger to life”) is defined as a chemical that is not usually found at significant concentrations or expected to reside for long periods in organisms. In addition to man-made chemicals, natural products could also be of interest if they have potent biological properties, special medicinal properties or that a given organism is at risk of exposure in the environment. Topics dealing with abiotic- and biotic-based transformations in various media (xenobiochemistry) and environmental toxicology are also of interest. Areas of interests include the identification of key physical and chemical properties of molecules that predict biological effects and persistence in the environment; the molecular mode of action of <em>xenobiotics</em>; biochemical and physiological interactions leading to change in organism health; pathophysiological interactions of natural and synthetic chemicals; development of biochemical indicators including new “-omics” approaches to identify biomarkers of exposure or effects for <em>xenobiotics</em>. Studies on the interaction of emerging nano- and biotechnological devices and drug-nanopolymers with living tissues are also of interest to the journal. In addition to research papers, short communications, reviews and mini-reviews, <strong>Journal of Xenobiotics</strong> will publish special issues dealing with the environmental, pharmaceutical and health impacts of new classes of chemicals. In this case, a special issue will be announced and provided at the journal’s web site. Special issues brought by international symposia or other scientific venues are also welcomed.</p> PAGEPress Scientific Publications, Pavia, Italy en-US Journal of Xenobiotics 2039-4705 <p><strong>PAGEPress</strong> has chosen to apply the&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial 4.0 International License</strong></a>&nbsp;(CC BY-NC 4.0) to all manuscripts to be published.<br><br> An Open Access Publication is one that meets the following two conditions:</p> <ol> <li>the author(s) and copyright holder(s) grant(s) to all users a free, irrevocable, worldwide, perpetual right of access to, and a license to copy, use, distribute, transmit and display the work publicly and to make and distribute derivative works, in any digital medium for any responsible purpose, subject to proper attribution of authorship, as well as the right to make small numbers of printed copies for their personal use.</li> <li>a complete version of the work and all supplemental materials, including a copy of the permission as stated above, in a suitable standard electronic format is deposited immediately upon initial publication in at least one online repository that is supported by an academic institution, scholarly society, government agency, or other well-established organization that seeks to enable open access, unrestricted distribution, interoperability, and long-term archiving.</li> </ol> <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ol> <li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.</li> </ol> Detection of polystyrene nanoplastics in biological tissues with a fluorescent molecular rotor probe <p>The release of nanoplastics (NPs) from the weathering and degradation of plastics is an important environmental concern. Given their small sizes and their invasiveness in cells, methods for the detection of NPs in biological tissues are urgently needed. A simple fluorescence-based methodology for the detection of polystyrene NPs in biological tissues is proposed. The commercially available molecular rotor probe 9- (dicyanovinyl)-julolidine (DCVJ) has the properties to detect changes in hydrophobicity and microviscosity and was used to detect NPs. Increasing concentrations of 50 and 100 nm NPs in water and in tissue extracts were mixed with the DCVJ probe and the emission spectra determined between 480-800 nm at 450 nm excitation. The data revealed that NPs induces a second emission peak at 620 nm that differed from the normal spectra of the biological extract at 500 nm. A significant linear relationship was obtained for NPs of both sizes (r=0.98; P&lt;0.001) with a theoretical limit of detection of 65 ng/mL. A simple and rapid microplate spectrofluorometric method for the semi-quantitative detection of polystyrene NPs in biological tissues is thus presented.</p> François Gagné ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-17 2019-05-17 10.4081/xeno.2019.8147 An amplicon-based sequencing approach for the study of aeromycology Not available. Hamza Mbareche Marc Veillette Guillaume J. Bilodeau Caroline Duchaine ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-29 2018-10-29 10.4081/xeno.2018.7810 Effects of copper on the early development of Xenopus laevis: the case of CuSO4 and Bordeaux mixture solutions Not available. P. Titran S. Slaby G. Marchand A. Lescuyer S. Lemiere M. Marin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-29 2018-10-29 10.4081/xeno.2018.7809 Behavioral effects of the neurotoxin ß-N-methylamino-L-alanine on the mangrove rivulus (Kryptolebias marmoratus) larvae Mangrove rivulus, <em>Kryptolebias marmoratus</em>, is a hermaphrodite fish capable of self-fertilization. This particularity allows to naturally produce highly homozygous and isogenic individuals. Despite the low genetic diversity, rivulus can live in extremely variable environments and adjust its phenotype accordingly. This species represents a unique opportunity to clearly distinguish the genetic and non-genetic factors implicated in adaptation and evolution, such as epigenetic mechanisms. It is thus a great model in aquatic ecotoxicology to investigate the effects of xenobiotics on the epigenome, and their potential long-term impacts. In the present study, we used the mangrove rivulus to investigate the effects of the neurotoxin ß-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) on larvae behaviors after 7 days exposure to two sub-lethal concentrations. Results show that BMAA can affect the maximal speed and prey capture (trials and failures), suggesting potential impacts on the organism’s fitness. Alessandra Carion Julie Hétru Angèle Markey Victoria Suarez-Ulloa Silvestre Frédéric ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-29 2018-10-29 10.4081/xeno.2018.7820 Effects of chronic exposure to benzophenone and diclofenac on DNA methylation levels and reproductive success in a marine copepod The UV-filter benzophenone and the anti-inflammatory diclofenac are commonly detected in the environment. The aim of this study was to assess the multigenerational effects of chronic exposure to low concentrations of these chemicals on toxicity and DNA methylation levels in the copepod <em>Gladioferens</em> <em>pectinatus</em>. Acute toxicity tests were conducted to determine the sensitivity of <em>G. pectinatus</em> to the chemicals. All chemicals impacted breeding, hatching and egg viability. Diclofenac (1 mg.L<sup>-1</sup>) reduced the number of eggs per gravid female. Benzophenone (0.5 mg.L<sup>-1</sup>) decreased egg hatching success. Exposure to the reference toxicant copper (0.02 mg.L<sup>-1</sup>) led to unsuccessful hatching. Effects on DNA methylation was estimated by the percentage of 5- methylcytosine. The treatments resulted in strong differences in DNA methylation with increased methylation in the exposed animals. The two chemicals impacted both egg viability and the induction of differential DNA methylation, suggesting potential intra- and trans-generational evolutionary effects. Anais Guyon Kirsty F. Smith Maria P. Charry Olivier Champeau Louis A. Tremblay ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-29 2018-10-29 10.4081/xeno.2018.7674 Thiamethoxam Actara® induced alterations in kidney liver cerebellum and hippocampus of male rats Thiamethoxam (TMX), a second-generation neonicotinoid insecticide, is one of the most widely used insecticides in Algeria. The present study assessed the effects of repeated subchronic exposure to the commercial formulation of thiamethoxam (Actara®, 25% WG) in albino male rats. The toxic effects of thiamethoxam (TMX) were studied biochemically and histopathologically. Twenty-eight male albino rats weighing between 226 and 243 g were randomly assigned to four groups. One group served as control, and the other three were served as experimental groups administered a neonicotinoid thiamethoxam (TMX; 26, 39 and 78 mg/kg/day) for 6 weeks. The effects of the insecticide on various biochemical parameters were evaluated at 2, 4 and 6 weeks. Histopathological studies were carried out in the liver, kidney, cerebellum and hippocampus at the end of the experiment. Changes in biochemical parameters glucose, ALT (alanine aminotransferase), AST (aspartate aminotransferase), γGT (gamma-glutamyltransferase) ALP (alkaline phosphatase) urea and creatinine were observed in treated-groups in a dose dependent manner when compared to the control. Histopathological alterations were more intense in male rats from the TMX high dose group than those from group 2 and 3. Based on these results, subchronic oral administration of thiamethoxam altered the biochemical parameters, which correlated with histopathological changes in the liver kidney and brain. Hassina Khaldoun-Oularbi Noura Bouzid Soumia Boukreta Chahrazed Makhlouf Fariza Derriche Nadia Djennas ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-21 2017-12-21 10.4081/xeno.2017.7149