Wine Studies 2018-07-13T13:35:37+00:00 Francesca Savio Open Journal Systems <p><strong>Wine Studies </strong>is a peer-reviewed, international multidisciplinary open-access Journal presenting and discussing new and significant researches related to the complex wine supply chain. The Journal will publish original research articles as its core material supplemented by reviews, editorials and point of views in a broad area of topics including: chemistry, biochemistry, sensory science, environmental impacts, by-products valorization, microbiology, production technologies, genetics, oenology, viticulture, medicine, public health, psychology, social sciences, economics and business.</p> Drying/encapsulation of red wine to produce ingredients for healthy foods 2018-07-13T13:35:37+00:00 Izmari Jasel Alvarez Gaona Diego Rocha-Parra Maria C. Zamora Jorge Chirife Epidemiological evidence indicates that moderate consumption of red wine reduces the incidence of coronary disease, atherosclerosis, and platelet aggregation. Wine is very rich in antioxidant compounds because of their phenolic components. However, many people for ethnic, social or religious reasons do not consume wine. Drying/encapsulation of red wine in the presence of adequate carbohydrates leads to water and more than 99% of alcohol removal; a glassy amorphous microstructure is obtained in which the wine’s phenolic compounds are entrapped. The resulting product is a free flowing powder which could be used for the polyphenol enrichment of healthy foods and/or drink powders, as well as in the pharmaceutical industry. The wine industry may take advantage of the dried/encapsulated red wine using as a raw material red wines which have little commercial value for different reasons; <em>i.e.</em> poor quality due to raw material, unfavourable climatic conditions, or wines that suffered some alteration during the wine making process. Dry encapsulated wine may be a new alternative to red wines that cannot be sold as such for different reasons, and open new opportunities to diversify wine products. 2018-03-26T12:26:48+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Antioxidant activity and storage regime of defatted grape seeds flour 2018-07-13T13:35:36+00:00 Adelina L. Bogoeva Albena G. Durakova Atanas I. Pavlov Velichka B. Yanakieva Radka Z. Vrancheva Bozhidar V. Bozadzhiev Kornelia B. Choroleeva In the present paper, we examined the antioxidant activity of a defatted grape seeds flour of different grape varieties locally grown in Bulgaria. The seeds are retrieved after alcoholic fermentation and the antioxidant activity of the flour was assessed by using four different methods, namely DPPH, ABTS, FRAP and CUPRAC. The results are presented in mM TE/g extract. The values are 586,08 (±41,55); 945,41 (±90,97); 553,39 (±45,57) and 667,73 (±64,30), respectively. The results are also showed in mM TE/g flour. The values are 58,67 (±4,16); 94,64 (±9,11); 55,40 (±4,56) and 66,85 (±6,44), respectively. During three-month storage of the flour in plastic bags (temperature 25 ºC and relative humidity 75%), no living cells of pathogenic organisms (<em>Escherichia coli</em>, <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> and <em>Salmonella </em>spp.) or apparent molding were detected. The flour particle size has not changed either. 2017-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Treatment with different fining agents of white musts from spoiled wine grapes 2018-07-13T13:35:37+00:00 Eric Meistermann Michel Pinsun Fining agents have evolved significantly over the last twenty years. The need for winemakers to have objective references about the new products has prompted this study. The experiment consists in comparing the new fining products (charcoal, pea proteins, derivatives of chitin and composite products generally mixing PVPP + various proteins + bentonite) with reference products such as casein and PVPP and with non-treated controls. Fining agents were applied during clarification of 15 different musts obtained from wine grapes affected by different degrees and types of rot: fresh and dry <em>Botrytis cinerea</em> rot, powdery mildew and Botrytis contaminated with other fungi (<em>Aspergillus</em>, <em>Penicillium</em>, Basidiomycetes), giving the bunches offflavours that were earthy and resembled fresh mushrooms. This study highlights the importance of good clarification of musts. The quality of control wines, without any treatment, increases with the clarity of the must. In most experiments, clarification of the must around 50 Nephelometric Turbidity Units (NTU) can eliminate or reduce any organoleptic defects in wine without fining. Use of pectolytic enzymes may be necessary in order to reach this level of clarity. The new allergen-free fining agents have the same effectiveness as reference products such as casein and polyvinylpolypyrolidone (PVPP). Composite products are more efficient than pea protein alone and less than products including charcoal. However, the improvement of aromatic quality goes hand in hand with loss of body and persistence. 2018-03-26T12:11:38+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Introducing renewable energy in vineyards and agricultural machinery: A way to reduce emissions and provide sustainability 2018-07-13T13:35:37+00:00 Javier Carroquino Nieves García-Casarejos Pilar Gargallo Climate change, depletion of nonrenewable resources in the current energies, pollution from them and the greater ecological awareness of the population, are factors that suggest the change of energy sources in business. The wine industry is concerned about sustainability and with a clear awareness of what climate change may mean for it. This sector is supposed to have a high receptivity to the implementation of clean energy, as this favours not only the environment but also the essence of its business. This work shows how the use of renewable energy, on a small scale, can be profitable in both vineyards and wineries. For this purpose, the European project LIFE REWIND (Renewable energy in the wine industry) has developed several actions, including the installation and operation of a prototype in a Spanish winery. This paper shows how to introduce renewable energy in wineries and vineyards in a profitable way, reducing the emissions of CO<sub>2</sub> associated to the activity and the product, without changing the processes of cultivation or production. 2018-03-26T12:20:16+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Do weak stationary magnetic fields affect the perceived astringency of red wine? 2018-07-13T13:35:37+00:00 Stephen Wesley Rowcliffe To investigate claims that products containing weak stationary magnets can reduce the astringency of tannic red wine, a double- blind randomized trial was carried out, in which 96 paired tastings were conducted of magnetized and non-magnetized samples of a young Nebbiolo. The data showed no association between reported differences in astringency and actual difference in the magnetic treatments given to the wine (χ<sup>2</sup>=0.135, degrees of freedom=1, P=0.71). This study confirms an earlier work that magnets have no observable effect on red wine. 2018-03-26T12:30:58+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##