Veins and Lymphatics 2019-11-12T17:50:52+00:00 Paola Granata Open Journal Systems <p><strong>Veins and Lymphatics</strong> is an online-only, international, Open Access peer-reviewed journal which publishes scientific papers about venous and lymphatic diseases. Open issues and debates about epidemiology, anatomy, pathophysiology, etiology, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of vein and lymphatic diseases are constantly present in our project. <a href="/index.php/vl/about">Read more</a></p> <p>This journal does not apply the article processing charge&nbsp;to Authors as it is supported by private funds.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Chronic venous insufficiency and interest of adjustable compression wrap devices 2019-11-12T17:50:52+00:00 Knut Kroeger Joachim Dissemond <p>Adjustable compression wrap devices (ACWD) are a heterogenic group which makes it difficult to match them to individual patient in their best way, we tried to characterize these products by their technical features. We bought four different ACWD and compared them regarding construction and handling. ACWD show obvious advantages including self-management, self-application, re-adjustability and standardization of the compression therapy. Basically, all systems are one or more low stretch bandages that encircle the lower leg and adhere to itself with velcro. Some allow for a selective adjustment during the course of the application because in these systems the individual bands mutually intermesh. In others, the bandages must always be opened from proximal to distal in order to retighten individual segments. In addition only one enables the user to control the compression pressure of each segment by a built-in-pressure system. Different technical features of the four ACWDs make it difficult to compare them. For effective compression easy handling, selective adjustments and a reliable pressure control seem to be the most important aspects.</p> 2019-11-12T16:14:15+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Cerebral venous drainage through internal jugular vein 2019-10-02T17:45:32+00:00 Nadiya Y. Mohammed Giovanni Di Domenico Mauro Gambaccini <p>Internal jugular veins (IJVs) are the largest veins in the neck and are considered the primary cerebral venous drain for the intracranial blood in supine position. Any reduction in their flow could potentially results an increase in cerebral blood volume and intracranial pressure (ICP). The right internal jugular vein communicates with the right atrium via the superior vena cava, in which a functional valve is located at the union of the internal jugular vein and the superior vena cava. The atrium aspiration is the main mechanism governing the rhythmic leaflets movement of internal jugular vein valve synchronizing with the cardiac cycle. Cardiac contractions and intrathoracic pressure changes are reflecting in Doppler spectrum of the internal jugular vein. The evaluation of the jugular venous pulse provides valuable information about cardiac hemodynamics and cardiac filling pressures. The normal jugular venous pulse wave consists of three positive waves, <em>a</em>, <em>c</em>, and <em>v</em>, and two negative waves, <em>x</em> and <em>y</em>. A normal jugular vein gradually reduces its longitudinal diameter, as described in anatomy books; it is possible to segment IJV into three different segments J<sub>3</sub> to J<sub>1</sub>, as it proposed in ultrasound US studies and CT scan. In this review, the morphology and methodology of the cerebral venous drainage through IJV are presented.</p> 2019-10-02T11:25:40+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Neurofluids: A holistic approach to their physiology, interactive dynamics and clinical implications for neurological diseases 2019-09-18T17:43:56+00:00 Nivedita Agarwal Christian Contarino Eleuterio F. Toro <p>There is increasing interest in understanding the physiology of the extracellular fluid compartments in the central nervous system and their dynamic interaction. Such interest has been in part prompted by a vigorous resurgence of the role of the venous system, the recent discoveries of the meningeal lymphatics, the brain waste removal mechanisms and their potential link to neurological diseases, such as idiopathic intracranial hypertension, Ménière’s disease, migraine, small vessel disease, and most neurodegenerative diseases. The rigid cranial cavity houses several space-competing material compartments: the brain parenchyma (BP) and four extracellular fluids, namely arterial, venous, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and interstitial fluid (ISF). During cardiac pulsations, the harmonious, temporal and spatial dynamic interaction of all these fluid compartments and the BP assures a constant intracranial volume at all times, consistent with the Monro-Kellie hypothesis. The dynamic interaction involves high-pressure input of arterial blood during systole and efflux of CSF into the spinal subarachnoid space (SSAS) followed by venous blood exiting directly into the vertebral and internal jugular veins towards the heart and intraventricular CSF displacing caudally towards the SSAS. Arterial pulsatile energy is transmitted to the BP that contributes to the smooth movement of fluids in and out of the brain. Perturbing any of these fluid compartments will alter the entire brain dynamics, potentially increase intracranial pressure, affect perfusion and hamper clearance capacity of metabolic waste. This review of all major extracellular fluid compartments within the brain, advocates a holistic approach to our understanding of the fluid dynamics, rather than focusing on a single compartment when analyzing neurological diseases. This approach may contribute to advance our comprehension of some common neurological disorders, paving the way to newer treatment options.</p> 2019-09-10T10:59:11+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##