Translational Medicine Reports 2019-06-20T09:19:16+02:00 Francesca Baccino Open Journal Systems <p><strong>Translational Medicine Reports</strong> is a peer-reviewed international journal publishing articles in the field of molecular biology, biochemistry and nanotechnology applied to the treatment of chronic-degenerative diseases including diabetes, cancer, neurological, cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. Aim of the Journal is to contribute to bridging the gap between basic research and clinical applications from an interdisciplinary perspective. <strong>Translational Medicine Reports</strong> addresses researchers and managers in academia, biotechnology and pharmaceutical industry researchers, physician scientists, <em>etc.</em> Original Articles with interdisciplinary topics, Reviews, Editorials, From Bench-to-Bedside Articles, Conference Proceedings, and Letters to the Editor are welcome. Every article published in the Journal will be peer-reviewed by experts in the field and selected by members of the Editorial Board.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>The journal is completely free: no charge for publication, as it is supported by private funds.</strong></p> West Nile virus: an overview of current information 2019-06-18T09:56:44+02:00 Annalisa Chianese Debora Stelitano Roberta Astorri Enrica Serretiello Maria Teresa Della Rocca Colombina Melardo Mariateresa Vitiello Marilena Galdiero Gianluigi Franci <p>West Nile Virus (WNV) is a vector-borne flavivirus primarily infecting mosquitoes, birds, horses and humans. WNV is responsible for asymptomatic infections or a variety of clinical manifestations ranging from mild febrile illness to neuroinvasive disease. The frequency and severity of WNV-related disease have lately increased in the European Union and in the neighbouring countries, with particular concern for the Mediterranean area. This trend is probably connected to a raise in both average temperatures and rainfall, favourable factors for WNV spread. Due to the marked and expanding geographical distribution of the vector and the high endemic potential of WNV, this virus is worldwide considered an increasing public health apprehension. An augmented burden of WNV severe illness has been reported. Alarmingly, no vaccine or specific antiviral treatments are currently available for WNV infection. Hereafter, we will review the available information summarizing molecular biology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, epidemiology, diagnosis and therapy for WNV infection in humans.</p> 2019-06-18T09:56:43+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Chikungunya virus: Update on molecular biology, epidemiology and current strategies 2019-06-20T09:19:16+02:00 Debora Stelitano Annalisa Chianese Roberta Astorri Enrica Serretiello Carla Zannella Veronica Folliero Marilena Galdiero Gianluigi Franci Valeria Crudele Mariateresa Vitiello <p>Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an arthropod-borne virus, is the aetiological agent of a disease characterized by several aspecific symptoms including fever, myalgia and arthralgia. The virus is primarily transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected mosquito of <em>Aedes</em> genus. This virus was first isolated in Tanzania in 1953, from which it spread to other African countries, Asia, Northern and Southern America, Europe and Oceania. Today, many human cases of CHIKV infection have been identified. The diffusion of CHIKV across the world, including Italy, is due to multiple factors amongst which the wide distribution of its vectors and high transmission efficiency play a crucial role. Currently, there are no specific treatments and effective vaccines against CHIKV; indeed, available therapies allow symptoms mitigation and some promising vaccines are undergoing clinical trials. The purpose of this review is to offer an updated picture of CHIKV molecular biology, epidemiology and vector distribution, clinical features and strategies for infection prevention and treatment.</p> 2019-06-20T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Antibacterial and antiviral potential of neuropeptides 2019-06-14T09:06:44+02:00 Carla Zannella Debora Stelitano Veronica Folliero Luciana Palomba Tiziana Francesca Bovier Roberta Astorri Annalisa Chianese Marcellino Monda Marilena Galdiero Gianluigi Franci <p>The emergence of multidrug resistant bacteria is a global health threat and the discovery of new antimicrobial agents is an absolute priority. In this context endogenous peptides are emerging as novel potential candidates. In this work, we assessed the antimicrobial effects of orexins and ghrelin neuropeptides against gram-negative (<em>Escherichia coli</em>, <em>Salmonella typhimurium</em>, <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae</em>) and gram-positive (<em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>) bacteria. Orexin-B and ghrelin showed a potent bactericidal effect at concentration equal to or greater than 25 μg/ml. No antimicrobial activity has been observed for orexin-A. Furthermore, we investigated the antiviral proprieties of the three peptides against <em>herpes simplex</em> virus 1 (HSV-1). We found that orexin-B, but not orexin-A is effective for HSV-1 infectivity inhibition.</p> 2019-05-13T15:47:40+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Airborne microbial flora in buffalo farms in a Mediterranean climate 2019-06-14T09:06:43+02:00 Debora Stelitano Giuseppe Squillaci Biagio Santella Annalisa Chianese Virginia D'Oriano Emiliana Finamore Mariateresa Vitiello Federica Maria Di Lella Marilena Galdiero Gianluigi Franci <p>The last few decades have seen an increase in intensive buffalo farms worldwide. Such industrialized activity entails human and animal potential health-related hazards as well as for the environment. Given the breadth of the issue, in this study we focused on gathering microbiological air sampling in the Southern Italian buffalo farms in order to obtain further information on airborne microbial flora. In details, we evaluated the bio-aerosol concentration of cultivable bacteria and fungi in ten different buffalo farms. There are evidences showing that exposure to organic dust may exacerbate asthma, just as it may cause mucous membrane irritation and chronic bronchitis. Likewise, studies show that inhaling noninfectious microorganisms and their components may cause inflammation of the respiratory tract. As a result, this is a significant health hazard to these farms’ workers as well as to rural residents living closely to them.</p> 2019-05-27T17:11:57+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##