West Nile virus: an overview of current information

  • Annalisa Chianese Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, Naples, Italy.
  • Debora Stelitano Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, Naples, Italy.
  • Roberta Astorri Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, Naples, Italy.
  • Enrica Serretiello Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, Naples, Italy.
  • Maria Teresa Della Rocca Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, Naples, Italy.
  • Colombina Melardo Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, Naples, Italy.
  • Mariateresa Vitiello Department of Clinical Pathology, Virology Unit, San Giovanni di Dio e Ruggi d’Aragona Hospital, Salerno, Italy.
  • Marilena Galdiero Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, Naples, Italy.
  • Gianluigi Franci | gianluigi.franci@unicampania.it Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, Naples, Italy.

Abstract

West Nile Virus (WNV) is a vector-borne flavivirus primarily infecting mosquitoes, birds, horses and humans. WNV is responsible for asymptomatic infections or a variety of clinical manifestations ranging from mild febrile illness to neuroinvasive disease. The frequency and severity of WNV-related disease have lately increased in the European Union and in the neighbouring countries, with particular concern for the Mediterranean area. This trend is probably connected to a raise in both average temperatures and rainfall, favourable factors for WNV spread. Due to the marked and expanding geographical distribution of the vector and the high endemic potential of WNV, this virus is worldwide considered an increasing public health apprehension. An augmented burden of WNV severe illness has been reported. Alarmingly, no vaccine or specific antiviral treatments are currently available for WNV infection. Hereafter, we will review the available information summarizing molecular biology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, epidemiology, diagnosis and therapy for WNV infection in humans.

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Published
2019-06-18
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Issue
Section
Review Articles
Supporting Agencies
VALEREplus Program
Keywords:
West Nile virus, Clinical features, Life cycle, Epidemiology, Therapy
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  • PDF: 333
How to Cite
Chianese, A., Stelitano, D., Astorri, R., Serretiello, E., Della Rocca, M. T., Melardo, C., Vitiello, M., Galdiero, M., & Franci, G. (2019). West Nile virus: an overview of current information. Translational Medicine Reports, 3(1). https://doi.org/10.4081/tmr.8145

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