The impact of smoking on infertility, pregnancy outcomes and fetal development
AbstractMaternal smoking during pregnancy is one of the main causes of pregnancy complications and is correlated with poorer outcomes compared to pregnancy without smoking. Maternal smoking is associated with a statistically significant increase in the risks of placental abruption, placenta praevia, ectopic pregnancy and preterm pre-labor rupture of membranes. In addition, maternal smoking during pregnancy correlated with higher rates of low birth weight, perinatal mortality, and premature birth, as well as complications in respiratory, cardiovascular and nervous systems in childhood. Active and passive smoking of pregnant mothers seems to be one of the causative agents for these and other negative effects on both mothers and their infants. Physicians should clarify these hazardous effects to pregnant women and strongly advise them to quit smoking as soon as possible. Women who continue to smoke during pregnancy should be considered a high-risk pregnancy.
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Copyright (c) 2012 Mohammed Hamad, Khaled Refaat, Constanze Fischer-Hammadeh, Mohamad Eid Hammadeh
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