Maternal smoking during pregnancy is one of the main causes of pregnancy complications and is correlated with poorer outcomes compared to pregnancy without smoking. Maternal smoking is associated with a statistically significant increase in the risks of placental abruption, placenta praevia, ectopic pregnancy and preterm pre-labor rupture of membranes. In addition, maternal smoking during pregnancy correlated with higher rates of low birth weight, perinatal mortality, and premature birth, as well as complications in respiratory, cardiovascular and nervous systems in childhood. Active and passive smoking of pregnant mothers seems to be one of the causative agents for these and other negative effects on both mothers and their infants. Physicians should clarify these hazardous effects to pregnant women and strongly advise them to quit smoking as soon as possible. Women who continue to smoke during pregnancy should be considered a high-risk pregnancy.
PlumX Metrics provide insights into the ways people interact with individual pieces of research output (articles, conference proceedings, book chapters, and many more) in the online environment. Examples include, when research is mentioned in the news or is tweeted about. Collectively known as PlumX Metrics, these metrics are divided into five categories to help make sense of the huge amounts of data involved and to enable analysis by comparing like with like.