Optometry Reports https://pagepressjournals.org/index.php/opto <p><strong>Optometry Reports</strong> is a peer-reviewed international journal devoted entirely to Optometry. The primary intent of the journal will be to rapidly publish relevant scientific information for optometrists and other professionals in visual sciences and optometry-related fields.</p> PAGEPress Scientific Publications, Pavia, Italy en-US Optometry Reports 2039-4721 <p><strong>PAGEPress</strong> has chosen to apply the&nbsp;<a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial 4.0 International License</strong></a>&nbsp;(CC BY-NC 4.0) to all manuscripts to be published.<br><br> An Open Access Publication is one that meets the following two conditions:</p> <ol> <li>the author(s) and copyright holder(s) grant(s) to all users a free, irrevocable, worldwide, perpetual right of access to, and a license to copy, use, distribute, transmit and display the work publicly and to make and distribute derivative works, in any digital medium for any responsible purpose, subject to proper attribution of authorship, as well as the right to make small numbers of printed copies for their personal use.</li> <li>a complete version of the work and all supplemental materials, including a copy of the permission as stated above, in a suitable standard electronic format is deposited immediately upon initial publication in at least one online repository that is supported by an academic institution, scholarly society, government agency, or other well-established organization that seeks to enable open access, unrestricted distribution, interoperability, and long-term archiving.</li> </ol> <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ol> <li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.</li> </ol> A review of the classification of nonstrabismic binocular vision anomalies https://pagepressjournals.org/index.php/opto/article/view/5626 There are conflicting and confusing ideas in literature on the different types of accommodative and vergence anomalies as different authors turn to classify them differently. This paper sought to review literature on the different classifications and types of nonstrabismic binocular vision anomalies and harmonize these classifications. Search engines, namely Google scholar, Medline, Cinahl and Francis databases, were used to review literature on the classification of accommodative and vergence dysfunctions using keywords like <em>binocular vision dysfunctions</em>, <em>classification of nonstrabismic binocular vision disorders or anomalies</em>, <em>accommodative disorders/anomalies classification</em> and <em>vergence disorders/anomalies classifications</em>, and included works that described these anomalies. Nonstrabismic binocular vision anomalies are classified as accommodative and vergence anomalies. There are three different major types of accommodative anomalies, namely accommodative insufficiency, accommodative infacility (accommodative inertia), and accommodative excess (accommodative spasm), and seven different types of vergence anomalies (convergence insufficiency, convergence excess, divergence insufficiency, divergence excess, basic esophoria, basic exophoria and fusional vergence dysfunctions), which are functional in origin. Functionally, there is a commonly reported interaction between accommodative and convergence insufficiency referred to as pseudoconvergence insufficiency. Accommodative paralysis (subtype of accommodative insufficiency) and vergence anomalies – <em>i.e.</em>, convergence paralysis, convergence spasm and divergence paralysis – are non-functional in origin with underlying systemic disease etiologies. Systemic convergence insufficiency, associated with subnormal accommodation, is a non-functional interaction between the accommodative and convergence insufficiency. The classification of nonstrabismic binocular vision anomalies is based on the description of the clinical signs and the underlying etiology either functional or non-functional in origin. Proper diagnosis and management involves investigation of the underlying etiology in addition to the battery of binocular vision test procedures. Charles Darko-Takyi Naimah Ebrahim Khan Urvashni Nirghin ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2016-06-17 2016-06-17 5 1 10.4081/optometry.2016.5626 Symptomatic classic convergence insufficiency treated with dot card orthoptic exercise https://pagepressjournals.org/index.php/opto/article/view/5566 Although lots of studies have been reported on convergence insufficiency (CI), no specific case of CI among African patients has been reported. We report a case of symptomatic <em>classic</em> convergence insufficiency in a female student who previously had been misdiagnosed and managed for refractive error. This case highlights the need for comprehensive binocular vision assessment, administration of validated symptom questionnaires in cases of suspicious CI, and the use of simple and inexpensive vision therapy procedures to manage CI in optometric centres in developing countries. Charles Darko-Takyi Kofi Asiedu ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2016-11-22 2016-11-22 5 1 10.4081/optometry.2016.5566