Reactivation of intestinal CMV in a renal transplant patient after 10 years from the transplant

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Maria Landi
Walter De Simone
Elio De Nisco
Raffaele Ariola
Franca Romeo
Pia Carmen Melillo
Generoso Violano
Anna Todisco *
(*) Corresponding Author:
Anna Todisco | antodisco@aosgmoscati.av.it

Abstract

Introduction.We analyzed the clinical case of a 51 years old man, kidney transplanted on December 2002. On April 2011, he had acute rectal bleeding, renal chronic rejection (creatinine 2.9 mg/dl), Hgb 8.7 g/dl, positive anti-CMV antibodies (IgG). A colonoscopy showed diverticulosis of the rectum associated with deepithelialisation. The patient was treated with maintenance immunosuppressive post-transplant therapy. On June 2011, the colonoscopy showed a stenosing lesion of the sigmoid colon, and blood sampling and intestinal biopsy were performed to search Cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA by PCR. Methods. The presence of CMV-DNA was sought by automatic extractor QIACUBE, using QIAamp DNA BLOOD Mini Kit (Qiagen) for whole blood and QIAamp DNA Mini Kit (Qiagen) for biopsy.The extracted DNA was then amplified by Real Time PCR using Q-CMV RealTime Complete Kit (Nanogen), on instrument Applied Biosystems 7300. Results. At disease onset the viral load in whole blood was 208000 Geq/ml, and biopsy was positive. Antiviral therapy with Ganciclovir led to the negativity of the viral load and remission of symptoms. Conclusions. The clinical case described presented a reactivation of CMV infection in the intestine after more than 10 years from kidney transplantation, while the highest incidence of CMV reactivation usually occurs during the first year. In our opinion, the reactivation can be traced to long-term immunosuppressive therapy (maintenance posttransplant therapy) in combination with a state of inflammation of the intestinal mucosa. In fact, patients with IBD treated with steroid drugs, in particular the group of refractory to therapy and thus have a recovery of the inflammatory process, are exposed to reactivation of CMV with intestinal localization.

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