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Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the causative agent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). It is a retrovirus that inserts itself into the host’s DNA and use the host – cell’s replication mechanisms for its own perpetuation. Two distinct species of HIV (HIV 1 and HIV 2) have been identified and they have a different global distribution. In this paper we describe a case of HIV early infection in an italian man of fourty years old. From this example we want to stress the importance to consider with high attention the validation of a negative index of HIV antibodies.We advise to follow this procedure that allows to avoid the risk to report a false negative.
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