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Objectives. An epidemiological study to identify the most represented pathogens isolated from blood and to evaluate their antibiotic susceptibility patterns, was conducted. Methods. Seven clinical microbiology laboratories, homogeneously distributed in the Ligurian area,were required to collected all consecutive non-duplicates strains isolated froom blood cultures during January 2010 to April 2010. The strains were sent to the reference laboratory (Sezione di Microbiologia del DISC, University of Genoa, Italy). Results. A total of 277 microorganisms were enrolled, including 155 Gram positive and 122 Gram negative.The most represented pathogens were: Escherichia coli (68), Staphylococcus aureus (57), Staphylococcus epidermidis (32), Staphylococcus hominis (17), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (15), Klebsiella pneumoniae (15), Enterococcus faecalis (11). Samples were collected mainly from medicine (66, 33.3%, of this number was determined by E. coli), intensive care units (33, 18.2% of this number consisted of S. epidermidis), surgery (24, 33.3% consisted of E. coli) and infectious diseases (20, of which S. aureus, E. coli and S. epidermidis equally represented 20.0%).Among the Staphylococci the most active molecules were: vancomycin and teicoplanin (100% of susceptible strains), chloramphenicol (92.3%) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (89.8%). Among the OXA-R Staphylococci (81/123, 65.9%) the most active molecules were: vancomycin and teicoplanin (100% of susceptible strains), chloramphenicol (93.8%) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (84.8%). Enterococci showed rates of resistance to vancomycin of 5.9%. Enterobacteriaceae exhibited resistance to ampicillin (77.5%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (42.6%), ciprofloxacin (41.2%), ceftriaxone (37.5%), ceftazidime (28.2%), cefepime (26.7%), cefoxitin (22.1%), piperacillintazobactam (20.4%), imipenem (4.7%) and amikacin (2.9%). The Gram negative non-Enterobacteriaceae showed rates of resistance of 100% to ceftriaxone, 81.3% to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 42.1% to ciprofloxacin and piperacillin-tazobactam, 33.3% to ceftazidime, 31.6% to cefepime, 27.8% to imipenem, 26.3 % to amikacin. Conclusions. The data show a higher incidence of Gram positive (56%) in comparison to Gram negative (44%).This confirms the high incidence of oxacillino-resistance in Staphylococci in our geographic area.Against Enterobacteriaceae rates of resistance were observed in excess of 20% for all drugs tested except imipenem (4.7%) and amikacin (2.9%). The proportion of imipenem-resistant isolates was constituted of strains of K. pneumoniae carbapenemase producers.
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