Journal of the Siena Academy of Sciences <p>The <strong>Journal of the Siena Academy of Sciences</strong> (formerly known as <em>"Atti della Accademia dei Fisiocritici in Siena. Sezione medico-fisica"</em> and <a href="[Jour]&amp;cmd=detailssearch" target="_blank" rel="noopener">available in <strong>Medline</strong> until 1968</a>) is published continuously since 1761 and it is in fact one of the oldest scientific journals in the world. <em>New issues are published yearly, usually in October, presenting all articles collected the previous year</em>.</p> en-US <p><strong>PAGEPress</strong> has chosen to apply the&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial 4.0 International License</strong></a>&nbsp;(CC BY-NC 4.0) to all manuscripts to be published.<br><br> An Open Access Publication is one that meets the following two conditions:</p> <ol> <li>the author(s) and copyright holder(s) grant(s) to all users a free, irrevocable, worldwide, perpetual right of access to, and a license to copy, use, distribute, transmit and display the work publicly and to make and distribute derivative works, in any digital medium for any responsible purpose, subject to proper attribution of authorship, as well as the right to make small numbers of printed copies for their personal use.</li> <li>a complete version of the work and all supplemental materials, including a copy of the permission as stated above, in a suitable standard electronic format is deposited immediately upon initial publication in at least one online repository that is supported by an academic institution, scholarly society, government agency, or other well-established organization that seeks to enable open access, unrestricted distribution, interoperability, and long-term archiving.</li> </ol> <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ol> <li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.</li> </ol> (Emanuela Fusinato) (Tiziano Taccini) Thu, 05 Sep 2019 15:51:42 +0000 OJS 60 [LYING LIFE: HOW LIFE DESIGNS LIES AND HOW LIES DESIGN LIFE] <p>[In this work we will show chance, necessity and, sometimes, opportunity of an abhorred informational alteration and how fake/true are artificial, conventional categories. Information arises with life, and with information arises a gap between reality (or another information that is assumed as original and true) and information that represents, repeats or replaces it. This is a gap and it creates a difference, a duality, a not virtual distance, it opens a space for potential (or unavoidable?) unfaithfulness, incongruities, falsehood. Lie can be meant as alteration, as distortion, as denial, or as creation “ex nihilo” if referred to what (world reality or other information) is assumed as original and authentic. The information (or latter information) is valued comparing it to the primary factor, aiming to find its compliance. Somehow or other, the conformity between these two poles is never full and unconditional. Due to this, life arises with the not eliminable lie “germ” inside. This has advantageous implications. “Untruthful” information has had a decisive importance in evolutionary balance and trending forever. Between life and lie, there is an indissoluble mutuality loop. Our thesis aims to: <br>• Expand the meaning of lie and to draw its continuity (that is different from homology or identity) between biologic sphere and anthropic/cultural one <br>• An appreciation of lie, starting from an investigation that examines its nature, its genetic processes and its function, both in the biological world and in the anthropic one <br>• Show its inseparableness from truth, that is to say the continuity (not homogeneity) between it and the lie, both in the biological world and in the anthropic one <br>• If the lie is meant in the widest sense, it presents some characterizing features. The lie is <br>• Random, that is to say it arises by chance, due to neither predictable nor controllable causes <br>• Necessary, because sometime it occurs in an inescapable way, due to the fact that it is intrinsic of the process of representation and/or of replication Appropriate, because sometimes it is the result of an aimed process and offers benefits if it is implemented.</p> <p>The excursus will be scientifically documented and it will be furnished with various iconography (pictures, video-clips…). It will lead us to adopt a wider, critical and not conventional overlook in considering topics as mimicry (meant in all its types: molecular, cryptic, batesian, müllerian, emsleyan, etc.), genetic mutations and evolution, sensorial (not only visual) illusions and hallucinations, the Theory of Games, the referentiality in semantics and in semiotics, gnoseologic, logic, heuristic, etic, aesthetic aspects of truthfulness. This work has no pretension to be a treatise, but it tries to shed light on what brings together so different aspects, in critical, epistemological and methodological ways. We will indicate historical (of very different periods) and authorial references of presented argumentations, thanks to drawing from several fields of knowledge and to comparing them: philosophy, figurative arts, life sciences, semiotics, literature, cinematography… All these argumentations will allow us to conclude that lie cannot be the enemy to be loathed. It must not be disapproved in a prejudicial way, but it deserves listening, attention and… esteem!... This should dispel or re-define the sense, the meaning and the function of (presumed) truth. It, both revealed and demonstrated, is often assumed as dogmatically absolute and (guiltily) it is interpreted as myth or it is mystified].</p> Mario Tanga ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 05 Sep 2019 16:22:14 +0000 [CONSIDERATIONS ON DE HUMANI CORPORIS FABRICA BY ANDRIES VAN WESELE (1514-1564) AND JAN STEPHAN VAN CALCAR (1499?- 1545): THE RULE AND FEELING] <p>[During the 15th and 16th century, significant innovations developed in medical studies as a result of an analytical revision of classical medicine as reworked by Galenus. Many anatomists began performing dissections on human corpses, thus verifying and correcting the theories of Galenus, who had only performed animal dissection. Remarkable results were achieved by Andries van Wesele <em>(Andreae Vesalii);</em> thanks to his excellent classical education and his knowledge of Greek and Latin, he became interested in anatomy and carried out a large number of dissections on corpses which enabled him to acquire a thorough knowledge of human anatomy. Furthermore, <em>Andreae Vesalii</em> actively sought the collaboration of artists such as Jan Stephan van Calcar to illustrate his works. The <em>De Humani Corporis Fabrica</em> is probably the best result of such collaborations. Although we do not know how many tabulae were actually created by Calcar (only seven have been proven to be his), his work has been a great influence on the book. Not only do the tabulae provide an extremely detailed anatomic description of the human body, they are also aesthetically impeccable. The illustrations of the musculoskeletal system and the thorax are particularly impressive: while the first group of tabulae is more innovative and original, the illustrations of the thorax are still inspired by classical standards of beauty. The importance given to aesthetics also stands out in the illustrations of skeletal segments and entrails and in typographic details such as the paragraph letters at the beginning of each section. To print his book, Vesalii chose Johannes Herbster (known as Oporinus), whose medical knowledge and innovative vision were key factors to a high-quality edition. The scientific accuracy, the aesthetic value and the competence of its printer have all contributed to make the<em> De Humani Corporis Fabrica </em>an absolute masterpiece].</p> Giandomenico Passavanti ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 05 Sep 2019 16:09:54 +0000 Annual scientific meeting November 26 2018 <p>not available</p> V.V. A.A. ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 05 Sep 2019 16:01:14 +0000