GONADAL HORMONES, WOMEN AND PAIN

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Anna Maria Aloisi *
Paolo Fiorenzani
(*) Corresponding Author:
Anna Maria Aloisi | annamaria.aloisi@unisi.it

Abstract

The clear presence of sex differences in chronic pain and the number of studies showing the power of gonadal hormones to modify pain-induced behavioral responses appear to have convinced clinicians and researchers. In the present review, the old and new literature is summarized to put together data on pain and its modulation by gonadal hormones, particularly estrogens. Targets of these hormones are discussed.

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