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Hyperplasia of thymic gland is a rare benign entity that should be considered in the differential diagnosis of anterior mediastinal masses in children and young adolescents. We report a case of a patient with a thymic mass, diagnosed occasionally for respiratory symptoms and treated by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. A previously healthy 10 years-old boy presented to our hospital for retrosternal pain and dyspnea with restriction to daily activities from four months. Diagnostic imaging was performed, including a chest x-ray and a magnetic resonance imaging, showing a large homogeneous antero-superior mediastinal mass, more extended on the left side. The additional laboratory analysis, considered essential for differential diagnosis with myasthenia gravis and lymphoma, resulted negative. In view of these findings, our patient underwent to video assisted thoracoscopy with left-sided approach for a total resection of thymus and perithymic fat. The patient made an excellent recovery without postoperative complications and was discharged from the hospital four days later. Histopathological examination showed a normal thymic architecture like a true thymic hyperplasia. At follow up, chest x-ray was normal in absence of pleural and parenchimal alterations. Thoracoscopic thymectomy is a safe technique that allows to achieve the goal of early thymectomy with the advantages of less invasive procedure.
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