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Among solid malignancies, thyroid cancer is the one showing the greatest increase in incidence in the last 10-15 years. The most likely explanation for this increase is better detection as a consequence of more diffuse screening of thyroid disorders in the general population, although an intervention from environmental carcigogens may be considered. Fortunately, most of these cancers are detected in early phase and have an excellent long term prognosis when treated appropriately. However, about 10-15% of the cases have aggressive features at presentation, tend to progress rapidly and eventually will kill the patient. Thus, the effort of the scientific community in recent yeas has been devoted to better understanding of the natural biology of the disease and to develop new therapeutic strategies for difficult cases. This research is culminated in better definition of the oncogenes responsible of thyroid cancer, in the use of molecular diagnosis to direct different therapies and in experimental trials with new drugs of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor family. All together these new achievements are offering new benefits in the management of thyroid ancer.
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