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Four field trials were conducted in Mantua province in northern Italy to evaluate the effect of the Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis Strain AM65-52 based VectoBac® 12 AS larvicide on black flies. Our objective was to examine and compare the efficacy of different concentrations of this microbial larvicide in small plain streams. Larvicidal activity was exhibited in all trials. VectoBac® 12 AS at 2.5 ppm/min rate generated larval mortality from the treatment point to 500 meters downstream. Larvae mortality (over 80%) was observed for 3500 meters downstream of the application site when a concentration of 40 ppm/min was applied.
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