Journal of Biological Research - Bollettino della Società Italiana di Biologia Sperimentale 2019-11-21T17:57:01+01:00 Francesca Baccino Open Journal Systems <p>The <strong>Journal of Biological Research – Bollettino della <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Società Italiana di Biologia Sperimentale</a></strong> is one of the oldest journals in Biology. Founded in 1925 the journal is available in <a href="[jour]" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Medline</a> until 2001 and <a href=";origin=resultslist" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Scopus</a> since 2014. The <strong>Journal of Biological Research – Bollettino della&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Società Italiana di Biologia Sperimentale</a></strong>&nbsp;is an online-only peer-reviewed journal which welcomes papers dealing with any aspect of experimental biology. Papers concerning clinical topics can be accepted only if they include experimental laboratory data. Original communications, review articles or short communications may be submitted.</p> Esterase profiling and molecular identification of yeasts isolated from different environmental samples from Morocco 2019-11-21T17:57:01+01:00 Lamya El Aamri Fabio Scordino Cinzia Barresi Orazio Romeo Giuseppe Criseo Majida Hafidi <p>One hundred and six fungal strains were isolated from different environmental samples (fresh olive oil cake, exhausted olive oil cake, black olive, rancid butter samples, rotten bread and Roquefort) collected from the region of Meknes, Morocco (coordinates: 33°53′42″N 5°33′17″W). Yeast isolates were tested for their esterase production ability using a qualitative method based on Tween agar plate assay. Enzymatic activity was also confirmed by a quantitative method relying on esterase production in liquid medium (6 days at 28°C with shaking). Molecular characterization of the selected esterase-producing yeasts was performed by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1), 5.8S and ITS2 region of the rDNA. A total of five different species were identified in this study: <em>Candida aaseri</em> (LE.26, LE.27 and LE.31 strains), <em>Wickerhamomyces anomalus</em> (LE.106, LE.112 and LE.115 strains), <em>Metschnikowia rancensis</em> (LE.153 strain), <em>Pichia</em> sp., (LE.102) and <em>Rhodotorula mucilaginosa</em> (LE.171 strain). Esterase production in <em>C. aaseri</em> and <em>W. anomalus</em> was found to be straindependent, while for <em>M. rancensis</em> this represents the first study reporting this species as an esterase producer.</p> 2019-08-02T12:50:07+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effectivity of topical mangosteen pericarp extract cream on wound healing in Swiss albino mice 2019-11-21T17:57:00+01:00 Hilda Brigitta Sombolayuk Khairuddin Djawad Siswanto Wahab Upik A. Miskad Gemini Alam Ilhamjaya Pattelongi <p>Wound healing is a complex physiological process consisting of four phases: coagulation, inflammation, proliferation and migration, and remodeling, each with distinct characteristics. Studies have suggested that mangosteen pericarp extract (MPE) may accelerate wound healing. However, the mechanism has not been fully understood. This study aims to evaluate the effect of MPE cream in various concentrations in acute wound healing of albino mice, both histologically and macroscopically. Thirty-two healthy female Swiss albino mice, aged 6-9 weeks, weight 20-30 g, were included in this study. The samples were randomly divided into eight groups each consisting of 4 mice. The first four groups were treated with MPE cream 5%, 10%, and 20%, and no medication (control group), respectively, and were sacrificed after three days. The other four groups received the same application and were sacrificed after 8 days. Wound bed diameter was measured and biopsy from the skin lesion was performed for histopathologic examination. Mann-Whitney test was used to analyze the diameter of the wound bed and histopathological findings of granulation tissue formation, reepithelialization, and inflammation, with P&lt;0.05 considered as significant. MPE cream significantly improved wound healing by increasing granulation tissue formation, and reepithelialization. In addition, MPE cream application was also shown to decrease the number of inflammatory cells, particularly in 5% and 10% concentrations, both in the 3-day and 8-day groups. MPE cream application can accelerate wound healing and thus can be used in acute wound treatment.</p> 2019-08-02T14:34:47+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Characterization of sponge-associated actinobacteria with potential to promote plant growth on tidal swamps 2019-11-21T17:56:57+01:00 Dwi Retnowati Dedy Duryadi Solihin Munif Ghulamahdi Yulin Lestari <p>Tidal swamps have become one of the highlighted topics in agricultural land development. Rice productivity in a tidal swamp is still low due to the high concentration of Fe, Al, and low pH. Siderophore-producing bacteria were known to alleviate the toxicity of heavy metals for plants. However, the potential of sponge-associated actinobacteria has been rarely reported in siderophore production. This work aimed to characterize the sponge-associated actinobacteria based on their tidal swamps characters and their potency to produce plant growth promoter on stressful tidal swamp imposed characters. The in vitro assay showed that, at the presence of Fe and Al, Car21t isolate produced a dry weight of mycelium reaching up to 289 mg and 204 mg in Yeast Malt Extract medium, respectively. Interestingly, all isolates were able to grow in relatively high salinity condition (7%). Indeed, under stress condition, inoculum of five actinobacteria isolates could produce Indole Acetic Acid and siderophore. These experimental results suggested that all potential isolates provided beneficial effects on the host plant, as evidenced by the rise of root length (9.86%), shoot length (9.44%), and root number (13.93%). Subsequently, our experimental data also indicated that these potential isolates belonged to the genus <em>Streptomyces</em>.</p> 2019-09-26T17:27:53+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sperm dynein ATPase and ATPases associated with various cellular activities (AAA+): regulation in oligo-astheno-teratozoospermia and necrozoospermia as extreme sperm motility disorders 2019-11-21T17:56:56+01:00 Silvia W. Lestari Fitrah Firdaus Dessy Noor Miati - Asmarinah <p>Asthenozoospermia is the most frequent sperm motility disorder, but there are other more extreme sperm motility disorders, namely oligo-astheno-teratozoospermia (OAT) and necrozoospermia. There are several cellular mechanisms known for OAT and necrozoospermia, but there are limited data on dynein ATPase and ATPases associated with various cellular activities (AAA+). AAA1 is involved in ATP hydrolysis, while AAA2 is entangled in ATP-binding pocket. This study was conducted to investigate the role of dynein ATPase activity and quantification of AAA dynein. Spermatozoa from 14 men with OAT, 11 men with necrozoospermic and 17 men with normoozspermic samples were used in this study. Makler chamber was used to determine sperm concentration and motility, while Papanicolaou stained semen smears using World Health Organization-fifth edition criteria was performed to determine sperm morphology, and dynein ATPase was quantified by calculation of released inorganic phosphate. AAA was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, whereas the distribution was determined by immunocytochemistry. This study showed that the dynein ATPase activity in OAT and necrozoospermia was lower than in the normozoospermic group (2.68±0.76, 1.01±0.31, 7.22±1.08 μmol Pi/mg protein/h, respectively, P&lt;0.05), as well as the amounts of AAA1 and AAA2. In addition, staining for AAA in the sperm tail paralleled the dynein ATPase activity and quantity of AAA, being the highest in sperm from normozoospermic samples, lower in sperm from OAT samples, and almost undetectable in sperm from necrozoospermic samples. The structure and function of damaged sperm dynein may alter dynein ATPase activity and levels of AAA1 and AAA2.</p> 2019-09-26T17:35:23+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Amphibian embryos as an alternative model to study the pharmaceutical toxicity of cyclophosphamide and ibuprofen 2019-11-21T17:56:54+01:00 Blerta Turani Valbona Aliko Caterina Faggio <p>Pharmaceuticals are becoming potentially ubiquitous pollutants because of their extensive use by man. One of the most frequent groups of pharmaceuticals that have been identified as particularly concerning is that of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory and chemotherapeutic drugs. In Albania, studies to determine the risk of pharmaceuticals in conjunction with their occurrence in water bodies and their adverse effects on living organisms, including humans, are scarce. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the possible toxic effects of ibuprofen (IBU) and cyclophosphamide (CP) on cellular physiology of frog tadpoles. For this purpose, individuals of <em>Pelophylax shqipericus</em> belonging to stage 21 Gosner were exposed to sub-lethal concentration (5 μg/L) of IBU and CP for 48 hours, and erythrocyte abnormalities and micronucleated cell frequency were evaluated as endpoints. Blood smears from tadpoles exposed to CP for 48 hours showed a pronounced decrease in the number of red blood cells and an increase in the percentage of micronucleated erythrocytes through chromatin fragmentation, while abnormalities like cellular and nuclear vacuolization, collapse and rupture of the cell membrane were caused by IBU toxicity. Understanding the biological effects of these drugs on frog tadpoles can help in using these animals as reliable bio-indicator organisms in monitoring aquatic environments health.</p> 2019-09-26T17:41:39+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## In vitro haemostatic effect of amphibian crude skin secretions in rabbit blood plasma 2019-11-21T17:56:51+01:00 Iryna Udovychenko Yuliia Dudkina Denys Oliinyk Oleksandra Oskyrko Oleksii Marushchak Tetiana Halenova Olexii Savchuk <p>In this research we have studied whether the amphibian crude skin secretions can modify some parameters of haemostatic system. We prepared the samples of crude skin secretions of <em>Bombina bombina</em>, <em>Bombina</em> <em>variegata</em>, <em>Bufo bufo</em>, and <em>Bufotes viridis</em> and investigated the plasma clotting function <em>in vitro</em> by performing activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), prothrombin time and thrombin time (TT) assays. The data indicate that the components of <em>B. bombina</em> and<em> B. variegata</em> skin secretions significantly prolonged aPTT clotting time, while the components of <em>B. viridis</em> skin secretions prolonged the time of plug formation in TT. The proteolytic activity and the ability of the skin secretions components to activate plasma proenzymes were assayed <em>in vitro</em> using synthetic chromogenic substrates. The components of <em>B. variegata</em> skin secretions cleaved all studied chromogenic substrates, whereas the <em>B. viridis</em> secretions intensively cleaved thrombin specific substrate and protein C specific substrate. The components of <em>B. bombina</em> and <em>B. bufo</em> skin secretions activated prothrombin and protein C in plasma. The components of <em>B. variegata</em>, <em>B. bufo</em> and <em>B. viridis</em> skin secretions in a dosedependent manner induced platelet aggregation.</p> 2019-10-25T13:55:03+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Genetic variability studies in seven accessions of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Moench.) using nine quantitative traits and chlorophyll content of leaves 2019-11-21T17:56:50+01:00 Ronke Justina Komolafe James Oludare Agbolade Abiodun Akeem Ajiboye Rofiat Temitope Mustapha <p>Seven accessions of <em>Vigna unguiculata</em> were evaluated for variation in phenotypic traits and chlorophyll content of the cowpea leaves. Each accession was planted in a plastic container in triplicates in a Completely Randomised Block Design and evaluated based on nine quantitative traits. The morphological characters such as plant height, number of leaves per plant, leaf area, peduncle length, number of pods per plant, terminal leaf length, terminal leaf width, number of main branches and number of nodes were determined at maturity. The leaf chlorophyll content was determined using spectrophotometer set at a wavelength of 634nm, 648nm and 470nm. Accession UAMO910556 has the highest plant height of 91.58cm, followed by accession IT97K- 499-35 with plant height of 50.33cm, while accession NGB0050 has the lowest plant height of 22.43cm. Accession T107K-297-13 has the highest peduncle length, number of main branches, number of nodes on main stem, number of leaves and highest number of pod which are significantly different from other accessions for the trait studied. Accession T107K-297-13 also has the highest content of chlorophylls a and b and highest total chlorophyll content. This shows that accession T107K-297-13 is the most diverse genotype with high quality of trait and so it could be selected for further breeding work.</p> 2019-11-11T10:44:42+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Nutrients formulation to maximize Ankistrodesmus sp. microalgal cell biomass and lipid productivities 2019-11-21T17:56:49+01:00 Wanida Pan-utai Penjit Srinophakun Wilasinee Inrung <p><em>Ankistrodesmus</em> sp. belongs to a group of microalgae which plays a significant role in various applications. Availability of nutrients is one of the primary factors regulating the growth and development of microalgae. Twelve experiments were run to determine the optimum media formulation of significant nutrient components for maximum biomass and lipid productivities of <em>Ankistrodesmus</em> sp. IFRPD 1061 cultivation using Plackett- Burman design. All nutrients significantly affected biomass productivity. Highest lipid productivity may not only necessarily originate from biomass cells with highest lipid content but also depend on nutrient formulation of culture media. Microalgal cell growth rate plays a major role in biomass and lipid production. Some nutrients including phosphorus and sodium did not significantly affect lipid productivity, therefore, optimizing nutrient contents could be applied to further scale-up microalgal production.</p> 2019-11-11T10:51:47+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Amateur doping: a survey on Sicilian population 2019-11-21T17:56:53+01:00 Fabio Venturella Giulia Cancellieri Marco Giammanco Paola Di Marco Francesca Catania Anastasia Valentina Liga <p>In the last years, amateur doping phenomenon has caused many victims. In order to know the diffusion of this phenomenon, we conducted an online survey thanks to Google forms. We also converted on paper the same questionnaire and we administered it in many gyms in Palermo and Trapani (Sicily, Italy). The examined sample consists of 976 people aged between 14 and 65 (47.3% of them are women and 52.7% are men). We asked them if they had ever taken substances to improve their athletic performances: 25.8% of them answered affirmatively and declared to take protein, amino acids, but also Ephedrine, Caffeine, Aspirin on a regular basis (34.6%). They bought these substances in sporting stores (32.2%), in pharmacy without prescription (26.8%), on the Internet (22.8%), in gyms (10.7%); 7.5% of them answered that they bought substances in other places. Furthermore, 17.9% of them declared that training companions, but also coaches and/or responsible of sports societies, proposed them to take doping-substances (Stanazolol, Tamoxifen, Testosterone, Erythropoietin, <em>etc</em>.). 16.8% of interviewed claimed that it is right to take substances with the purpose to improve their performances. However, 95% of respondents said they had never given such substances to their children. They also declared they wanted more information about the true risks related to uncorrected doping-substances intake. In conclusion, it appears necessary to adopt measures of information and prevention to reduce the diffusion of this dangerous phenomenon.</p> 2019-10-01T10:29:32+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## In memory of Dr. Kary Mullis 2019-11-21T17:56:58+01:00 Massimo Cocchi <p>Not available.</p> 2019-08-27T17:21:17+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##