Metabolic effects of 3,5-Diiodo-L-Thyronine
Thyroid hormones have been proposed as anti obesity drugs due to their effects on basal metabolism and the ability to increase energy expenditure. However, their clinical use has been strongly curbed by the concomitant onset of thyrotoxicosis. In this setting, several studies have been undertaken to assess the role of 3,5 diiodo- L-thyronine (T2), an endogenous metabolite of thyroid hormone derived from the enzymatic deiodination of triodothyronine T3. The metabolic effects of T2 are similar to those induced by T3. However, these effects appear to involve different and not welldefined mechanisms that make this molecule clinically useful as potential drug in the treatment of pathological conditions such as obesity and hepatic steatosis. The main pharmacological target of T2 appears to be the mitochondria. Therefore, the administration of T2 to obese subjects might improve the mitochondrial performance, which is generally recognized to be reduced in these subjects who must oxidize greater quantities of substrates. In this context, it can be hypothesized that T2, by acting mainly on mitochondrial function and oxidative stress, might be able to prevent and revert the tissue damages and hepatic steatosis induced by a hyperlipidic diet and a concomitant reduction in the circulating levels LDL and triglycerides as well. This review the discuss the mechanisms of action of T2 and the possible, future clinical uses of T2 analogs for the treatment lipid dysmetabolism related to obesity and overweight.
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