Italian Journal of Food Safety <p>The <strong>Italian Journal of Food Safety (IJFS)</strong> is the official journal of the <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Italian Association of Veterinary Food Hygienists (AIVI)</a>. The Journal addresses veterinary food hygienists, specialists in the food industry and other experts offering technical support and advice on food of animal origin. The <strong>Italian Journal of Food Safety</strong> publishes original research papers concerning food safety and hygiene, animal health, zoonoses and food safety, food safety economics. Reviews, editorials, technical reports, brief notes, conference proceedings, letters to the Editor, and book reviews are also welcome. Every article published in the Journal will be peer-reviewed by experts in the field and selected by members of the Editorial Board.</p> en-US <p><strong>PAGEPress</strong> has chosen to apply the&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial 4.0 International License</strong></a>&nbsp;(CC BY-NC 4.0) to all manuscripts to be published.<br><br> An Open Access Publication is one that meets the following two conditions:</p> <ol> <li>the author(s) and copyright holder(s) grant(s) to all users a free, irrevocable, worldwide, perpetual right of access to, and a license to copy, use, distribute, transmit and display the work publicly and to make and distribute derivative works, in any digital medium for any responsible purpose, subject to proper attribution of authorship, as well as the right to make small numbers of printed copies for their personal use.</li> <li>a complete version of the work and all supplemental materials, including a copy of the permission as stated above, in a suitable standard electronic format is deposited immediately upon initial publication in at least one online repository that is supported by an academic institution, scholarly society, government agency, or other well-established organization that seeks to enable open access, unrestricted distribution, interoperability, and long-term archiving.</li> </ol> <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ol> <li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.</li> </ol> (Emanuela Fusinato) (Tiziano Taccini) Mon, 18 Mar 2019 15:25:33 +0100 OJS 60 Assessment of the microbiological quality of popular food items on sale in secondary school canteens of Mauritius <p>This study was carried out to assess the microbiological status of three hot meals served in eight selected school canteens of Mauritius, with two schools randomly selected from each of the four school zones of the island. Three individual samples of farata, panini, or fried noodles were collected at each school during two independent visits. The three individual samples of each food type collected during each visit were then pooled before being subjected to microbiological analyses. A total of 48 composite samples were analyzed. The parameters tested were Total Viable Count (TVC),<em> Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus,</em> and <em>Listeria</em> spp. The microbiological analyses revealed that paninis were deemed as generally acceptable with TVC falling in the range of 3.0-5.7 Log CFU/g and undetectable levels of<em> S. aureus</em> and <em>E. coli. I</em>n contrast, fried noodles and faratas harboured a moderately high level of TVC (4.4-6.7 Log CFU/g) and objectionably high levels<em> S. aureus</em> (3.1 to 5.0 Log CFU/g) and E.<em> coli</em> (3.1-5.1 Log CFU/g) for seven out of the eight schools.</p> Dayawatee Goburdhun, Mahima D. Beeharry, Keshnee Reega, Arvind Ruggoo, Hudaa Neetoo ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 18 Mar 2019 14:49:26 +0100 Detection of antibiotic residues among raw beef in Erbil City (Iraq) and impact of temperature on antibiotic remains <p>The presence of antibiotic residues in beef is considered a serious threat to public health. This study aimed to detect antibiotic residues in raw beef and the impact of low and high temperature treatments on residues persistence. A total of 250 sampleswere collected from retail markets in Erbil city (Iraq) and analyzed microbiologically in plates pre-inoculated with <em>Bacillus subtilis.</em> The overall occurrence of antibiotics residues was (10.8%).The highest rate was detected in January (16.7%). Cooking for thirty minutes completely deactivate antibiotic residues against the challenged bacterium. In conclusion, the presence of antibiotic residues in beef samples in Erbil city was high and their persistence is markedly reduced by cooking.</p> Dhary Alewy Al-mashhadany ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 18 Mar 2019 15:25:10 +0100 Heavy metals accumulation from sewage sludge in the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Trewavas, 1983) during a sludge-earthworm-fish short-term cycling <p>Municipal sewage sludge from wastewater treatment is an important nutritional source for sustainable agriculture. Here, we report on the assessment of the accumulation of heavy metals in Nile tilapia <em>Oreochromis niloticus</em> (Trewavas 1983) fed on earthworms <em>Eisenia fetida</em> reared on soil treated with different concentrations of sewage sludge (25% and 100%) during sludge-earthworm-fish short-term cycling. In this short-term cycling the Nile tilapia collected from the White Nile were chosen as final consumers, whereas the earthworms reared on loam soil mixed with different ratios of sludge were used as a feed for the final consumers. Our results indicate that the concentrations of Cd2+, Cr2+, Pb2+ and Zn2+ in the sludge treated soil are proportional to the sludge content in the soil. Importantly, the accumulation of these heavy metals was significantly low in the earthworms and the Nile tilapia in comparison with the treated soil and that these concentrations in the Nile tilapia were below the international limits recommended by the US Environmental Protection Agency (2014). Moreover, the growth and overall flesh quality of the fish were improved as indicated by the growth increase up to 146% when fed on earthworm reared in 100% sludge. Additionally, our physicochemical properties (<em>i.e.</em> pH, soil moisture, electric conductivity and organic matters) evaluation on the soil indicates an improvement of the soil quality when mixed with sewage sludge. These results suggest a sustainable application of sewage sludge in fish culture owing to its high nutritional values, low cost, and low risk of hazardous heavy metals when using primary consumers with heavy metals bioaccumulation capability such as <em>E. fetida.</em></p> Nahid A.A. Siddig, Asma A. Ahmed, Sarra A.M. Saad, Faisal Hammad Mekky Koua ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 19 Mar 2019 14:33:36 +0100 Authentication of European sea bass according to production method and geographical origin by light stable isotope ratio and rare earth elements analyses combined with chemometrics <p>In this work, stable isotope ratio (SIR) and rare earth elements (REEs) analyses, combined with multivariate data elaboration, were used to explore the possibility to authenticate European sea bass <em>(Dicentrarchus labrax</em> L.) according to: i) production method (wild or farmed specimens); ii) geographical origin (Western, Central or Eastern Mediterranean Sea). The dataset under investigation included a total of 144 wild and farmed specimens coming from 17 different European areas located in the Mediterranean Sea basin. Samples were subjected to SIR analysis (carbon and nitrogen) and REEs analysis (lanthanum, europium, holmium, erbium, lutetium, and terbium). Then, Analytical data were handled by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and then by Orthogonal Partial Last Square Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA), to obtain functional classification models to qualitatively discriminate sea bass according to the conditions under study. OPLSDA models provided good correct classification rate both for production method and geographical origin. It was confirmed that chemometric elaboration of data obtained from SIR and REEs analyses can be a suitable tool for an accurate authentication of European sea bass.</p> Maria Olga Varrà, Sergio Ghidini, Emanuela Zanardi, Anna Badiani, Adriana Ianieri ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 22 Mar 2019 10:00:15 +0100 Farm products’ direct sale in accordance with national and EC Regulations <p>Primary production has always been considered the weak link in the entire food production chain (from farm to fork) and, due also to the grave health and food emergencies that have taken place over the years (BSE, dioxin, avian flu etc.), greater attention has been focused on the production stage, together with the need to regain the consumers’ faith. To preserve and support small farms in a local setting and, consistent with the aims of flexibility and respecting the main requisites contained in the EC Regulations (No. 852/2004; No. 853/2004) (European Commission, 2004; 2004a), production is allowed for tastingadministration on the premises and the processing and sales of agricultural products produced exclusively on the farm, such as: fresh meat from poultry and rabbits and small farmed wild animals; processed meats obtained from animals raised on the farm and from hunting; fishing and aquaculture products; raw milk for direct human consumption and dairy products; eggs, honey, fruit and vegetables, woodland products; jams and preserved fruit, flours, vegetable preserves, wild above ground and underground mushrooms; dried fruits, fruit juices, cereals, syrups; oil, wine, bread and baked products. This possibility is reserved for individual farmers or co-operatives, registered in the company register according to Article 8 of the Law 29th December 1993 No. 580 (Italian Republic, 1993); who may sell directly inside and outside farm, products coming mainly from the respective farms, observing the current regulations regarding health and hygiene. All this should provide an instrument for rural and competitive development for the entire European agricultural production chain strongly influenced by the marketing conditions imposed by the mass retailing groups on their own suppliers. Not least is the possibility of creating work and occupation and adequately counteracting the phenomenon of the depopulation of the countryside, encouraging the return to agricultural activities on the part of young people; and, consequently, a form of safeguarding the environment by reducing the costs linked to hydro-geological instability and soil maintenance. This trend, together with the national directions, may represent a support even for small local farms which, taking advantage of simplified procedures consistent with the objectives of flexibility of the community Regulations (EC) (No. 852/2004; No. 853/2004) (European Commission, 2004; 2004a), may take part in the promotion of agricultural markets managed directly by the farmers as sales points for local products (farmers’ markets), so as to guarantee a fairer price and consolidate the territorial link between production and consumption (short distribution chain or short circuit). Without, of course, renouncing the necessary prerequisites for placing any food on the market: health-hygiene; traceability; health and well-being of the animals; safeguarding of the environment and the plants.</p> Massimo Renato Micheli, Alfredo Rossi, Giovanni Rossi, Alfonso Rosamilia, Emanuele Guidi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 22 Mar 2019 09:25:04 +0100