Italian Journal of Food Safety <p>The <strong>Italian Journal of Food Safety (IJFS) </strong>is the official journal of the <a href="" target="_blank">Italian Association of Veterinary Food Hygienists (AIVI)</a>. The Journal addresses veterinary food hygienists, specialists in the food industry and other experts offering technical support and advice on food of animal origin.</p><p>The <strong>Italian Journal of Food Safety </strong>publishes original research papers concerning food safety and hygiene, animal health, zoonoses and food safety, food safety economics. Reviews, editorials, technical reports, brief notes, conference proceedings, letters to the Editor, and book reviews are also welcome. Every article published in the Journal will be peer-reviewed by experts in the field and selected by members of the Editorial Board.</p> PAGEPress Scientific Publications, Pavia, Italy en-US Italian Journal of Food Safety 2239-7132 PAGEPress has chosen to apply the <a href="" target="_blank">Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial 4.0 License</a> (CC BY-NC 4.0) to all manuscripts to be published. <br /><br />An Open Access Publication is one that meets the following two conditions:<br /><br /> 1. The author(s) and copyright holder(s) grant(s) to all users a free, irrevocable, worldwide, perpetual right of access to, and a license to copy, use, distribute, transmit and display the work publicly and to make and distribute derivative works, in any digital medium for any responsible purpose, subject to proper attribution of authorship, as well as the right to make small numbers of printed copies for their personal use.<br /> 2. A complete version of the work and all supplemental materials, including a copy of the permission as stated above, in a suitable standard electronic format is deposited immediately upon initial publication in at least one online repository that is supported by an academic institution, scholarly society, government agency, or other well-established organization that seeks to enable open access, unrestricted distribution, interoperability, and long-term archiving.<br /><br />Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms: 1. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal. 2. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal. 3. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work. Effects of moringa leaves (Moringa oleifera) extraction on quality changes and melanosis of giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) during chilled storage An aqueous extraction of moringa (<em>Moringa oleifera)</em> leaves were prepared as the edible coats for keeping the quality of the giant freshwater prawn (<em>Macrobrachium rosenbergii</em>). In addition, the antioxidant properties and activity; total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid contents (TFC), free radical scavenging activity (DPPH), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) of moringa leaves were also determined. The phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties in the moringa leaves are low; 16.14 mgGAEg-1 for TPC; 5.57 mgQEg-1 for TFC; 1.36 mgTEg-1 for DPPH; and 3.05 mgTEg-1 for FRAP. The experiment was further conducted by coating the <em>M.</em> <em>rosenbergii</em> with moringa leaves extraction before chilled storage at 4°C for 15 days. Moringa leaves extraction were effectively reduced the microflora count in <em>M. rosenbergii</em> (P&lt;0.05). Total volatile basis nitrogen (TVB-N) value showed a significant (P&lt;0.05) lower amount in treated samples compared to the controls. Melanosis were obvious in controls compared to the treated samples. After 15 days of chilled storage, the sensory properties; taste, texture and odour of treated samples were acceptable by the panelists. Biopreservation of moringa leaves extraction significantly benefits in keeping the quality of <em>M. rosenbergii.</em> Nurul U. Karim Uzmaa S.A.A. Siddiq Mohd R.M. Razak Mohamad K.M. Zainol Mohd I. Abdullah ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-09-26 2018-09-26 7 3 10.4081/ijfs.2018.6846 Olive mill wastewater phenolic concentrate as natural antioxidant against lipid-protein oxidative deterioration in chicken meat during storage Considering that many plant-derived substances show antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, natural antioxidant administered through feed in livestock animals could increase the shelf life of meat and meat products. The aim of this work was to study the effect of olive oil by-products on chicken meat lipid and protein oxidation and oxidative stability during storage. Two hundred and ninety-seven 22-day-old fast growing (Ross 308) female chicks were randomly assigned to three experimental grower-finisher diets: i) a basal control diet (CTR), ii) CTR diet supplemented with a low dosage (4.8%) of olive mill wastewater extract (L-OW) and iii) CTR diet supplemented with a high dosage (9.9%) of olive mill wastewater extract (H-OW). Breast meat of animals belonging to each experimental group was sliced, overwrapped with oxygen-permeable packaging and analysed at three different storage times (zero, three and seven days). At the three sampling times considered, for all samples, colour coordinates (a*), saturation index, Hue angle, peroxide value, thiobarbituric reactive substance, carbonyl assay and the oxygen radical absorbance capacity determinations were performed. No differences in colour were detected among the groups in all the sampling times considered. In conclusion, the supplementation of chicken diet with olive mill wastewater extract (OW) affected oxidation of meat, retarding lipid and protein oxidation and improving antioxidant activity during storage. Rossana Roila Andrea Valiani Dino Miraglia David Ranucci Claudio Forte Massimo Trabalza-Marinucci Maurizio Servili Michela Codini Raffaella Branciari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-09-27 2018-09-27 7 3 10.4081/ijfs.2018.7342 Growth potential of Listeria monocytogenes in six different RTE fruit products: impact of food matrix, storage temperature and shelf life We tested the growth potential of <em>Listeria monocytogenes</em> on six RTE fruit products at low (4°C at the factory followed by 8°C retail/home storage) and abusive (4°C followed by 12°C) storage temperatures. Sliced coconut and fresh cut cantaloupe, as well as a fruit mix containing diced pineapple, cantaloupe, apples and grapes supported the growth of <em>L. monocytogenes</em> with a growth potential d&gt;0.5 log CFU/g over six days. Mangoes, a mix of diced kiwi, cantaloupe and pineapple as well as a mix of diced pineapple, mango, grapefruit, kiwi and pomegranate did not support a growth potential that exceeded 0.5 log CFU/g over six days. The growth potential of<em> L. monocytogenes</em> correlated significantly with the pH; no product with a pH below 4 showed a significant growth potential of <em>L. monocytogenes.</em> Time after inoculation was also a significant predictor of the growth potential, while the fruit type and storage temperature were not. Matthias Ziegler Simon Rüegg Roger Stephan Claudia Guldimann ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-08 2018-10-08 7 3 10.4081/ijfs.2018.7581 Survey on broiler pre-slaughter mortality in a commercial abattoir of central Italy The pre-slaughter mortality was investigated on broilers, in the Mediterranean climate condition, considering the most significant risk factors as the journey length, waiting time, season and the space allowance in cages. At first, the <em>pre</em>-slaughter mortality was studied considering the totality of birds and then by examining in detail three broiler categories: large, medium and small size. The average dead on arrival (DOA) recorded on the totality of birds throughout the year was 0.38% and the values obtained in winter, spring, summer and autumn were 0.52, 0.48, 0.31 and 0.22%, respectively. The mortality rate observed during the year was 0.52, 0.47 and 0.31% for large, medium and small broilers, respectively. In all three groups, the maximum values of mortality were obtained in winter, whereas the minimum ones were recorded in autumn, spring and summer for large, medium, and small size birds, respectively. The increase of journey length could cause a higher mortality rate whereas the increase of the waiting time in the facilities at controlled environmental conditions did not seem to be a risk factor, but rather a mean to reduce the number of dead animals (all P &lt; 0.05). It is concluded that the resistance to the hostile weather conditions, long journeys and extended waiting times was strongly related with the body weight of broilers; therefore, the planning of the slaughtering activity should consider this aspect, in order to avoid animal suffering and the economic loss. Claudia Grilli Roberta Stocchi Anna Rita Loschi Fabrizio Conti Stefano Rea ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-06 2018-11-06 7 3 10.4081/ijfs.2018.5878 Study on endocrine disruptors levels in raw milk from cow’s farms: Risk assessment <p>Diet represents the primary route for human exposure to bisphenol A (BPA). As endocrine disruptor (ED), BPA has raised concerns about its adverse effects on human health. Therefore, EFSA recommended a tolerable daily intake (t-TDI) of 4 µg/kg bw/day and the EU Regulation n. 2018/213 fixed a specific migration limit (SML) of 0.05 mg/kg for BPA in food from plastic materials intended to come in contact with food. Considering the widespread consumption of milk and milk products, the contamination of dairy products is a matter of public health concern. The aim of the study was to investigate the BPA contamination levels of raw cow’s milk from two farms located in Campania region, Italy. The milk samples (n.22), weekly collected from the cooling tank, were analyzed using liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. In raw milk from both farms, preliminary results showed the occurrence of BPA levels lower than the SML limit, ranging from not detected to 2.34 µg/L. The consumer exposure calculated considering hypothetical raw milk consumption and three possible scenarios was below the t-TDI. BPA could be present in milk due to environmental contamination, and also as a result of the migration from contact materials used during milking and storage. Despite the low levels of exposure through milk consumption, low doses can have lasting effects during human development. Thus, new approaches, methods, and plans should be applied to monitor the ED contamination, such as BPA and other pollutants, and to assure milk safety.</p> Serena Santonicola Maria Carmela Ferrante Genni di Leo Nicoletta Murru Aniello Anastasio Raffaelina Mercogliano ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-07 2018-11-07 7 3 10.4081/ijfs.2018.7668 Contribution of vegetables and cured meat to dietary nitrate and nitrite intake in Italian population: Safe level for cured meat and controversial role of vegetables Nitrate and nitrite content was determined on a total of 900 samples of vegetables and cured meat and the nitrite and nitrate exposure assessment was evaluated for central Italy population based on the food consumption data reported by the national dietary surveys. The highest average content of nitrate was detected in rocket salad (4415 mg/kg) and radish (3817 mg/kg) and for cured meat in “Bresaola” (188 mg/kg) and in Bacon (178 mg/kg). The nitrite content was negligible both in vegetables than in cured meat. The average consumption among population resulted 3.45 g/kg bw/die and 0.62 g/kg bw/die for vegetables and cured meat respectively. The obtained data confirm that nitrate ADI was higher than the limits of 3.7 mg/kg bw/die for infants and was the highest exposure level for people of all ages. Cured meat consumption did not contribute to nitrate ADI exceedance neither as a mean nor as 99th percentile of exposure. Rossana Roila Raffaella Branciari Benedetta Staccini David Ranucci Dino Miraglia Maria Serena Altissimi Maria Lucia Mercuri Naceur M. Haouet ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-07 2018-11-07 7 3 10.4081/ijfs.2018.7692 Presence of cadmium residues in muscle, liver and kidney of Bubalus bubalis and histological evidence Cadmium (Cd) concentrations were evaluated in the samples of kidney, liver and muscle of sixty-six buffaloes regularly slaughtered. Forty were raised in Campania, in the territory between the province of Naples and Caserta and twenty-six were bred in Apulia, in the province of Bari. Two aliquots were prepared for the renal and hepatic samples: one intended for the chemical analysis and the other one intended for histological investigations. Muscle samples were the subject of purely chemical investigation. In the group of forty animals raised in the Campania region, the limits imposed by EC Reg. 1881/2006 and EC Reg. 488/2014 were exceeded in three renal samples, which showed values of 1.53, 1.22 and 1.1 mg/kg respectively; in three hepatic samples, which presented values of 0.72, 0.64 and 0.61 mg/kg, and in five muscle samples, with values of 0.16, 0.16, 0.09, 0.08 and 0.07, respectively. On the other hand, in the group of animals raised and slaughtered in the province of Bari, none of the twenty-six samples examined exceeded the limits imposed by the European regulations. The histological analysis showed typical, but not pathognomonic lesions in the renal samples from the animals raised in the provinces of Naples and Caserta. The levels of Cd contamination found in the samples examined suggest that it would be correct to exclude from the human consumption, as it happens for the equines, the kidney and the liver, especially from the animals raised in some geographical areas with a high rate of pollution. Roberta Barrasso Edmondo Ceci Laura Stinga Giuseppina Tantillo Giancarlo Bozzo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-07 2018-11-07 7 3 10.4081/ijfs.2018.7684 Social involvement, food safety and food security The paper describes the terminology of risk assessment in the view of food safety: different aspects of social involvement are defined and discussed; the terms Document, Expert, Risk manager, Lay Knowledge, Participant, Participation, Citizens’ involvement, Community of interest, Consultation, Trust and Social trust are presented. Also, the terms Adverse effects, Human Illness Source Attribution, Food hygiene, Emerging disease, Safety, Food security and Food safety are discussed. Gaetano Liuzzo Stefano Bentley Federica Giacometti Silvia Piva Andrea Serraino ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-09-26 2018-09-26 7 3 10.4081/ijfs.2018.7394