Italian Journal of Food Safety <p>The <strong>Italian Journal of Food Safety (IJFS)</strong> is the official journal of the <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Italian Association of Veterinary Food Hygienists (AIVI)</a>. The Journal addresses veterinary food hygienists, specialists in the food industry and other experts offering technical support and advice on food of animal origin. The <strong>Italian Journal of Food Safety</strong> publishes original research papers concerning food safety and hygiene, animal health, zoonoses and food safety, food safety economics. Reviews, editorials, technical reports, brief notes, conference proceedings, letters to the Editor, and book reviews are also welcome. Every article published in the Journal will be peer-reviewed by experts in the field and selected by members of the Editorial Board.</p> PAGEPress Scientific Publications, Pavia, Italy en-US Italian Journal of Food Safety 2239-7132 <p><strong>PAGEPress</strong> has chosen to apply the&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial 4.0 International License</strong></a>&nbsp;(CC BY-NC 4.0) to all manuscripts to be published.<br><br> An Open Access Publication is one that meets the following two conditions:</p> <ol> <li>the author(s) and copyright holder(s) grant(s) to all users a free, irrevocable, worldwide, perpetual right of access to, and a license to copy, use, distribute, transmit and display the work publicly and to make and distribute derivative works, in any digital medium for any responsible purpose, subject to proper attribution of authorship, as well as the right to make small numbers of printed copies for their personal use.</li> <li>a complete version of the work and all supplemental materials, including a copy of the permission as stated above, in a suitable standard electronic format is deposited immediately upon initial publication in at least one online repository that is supported by an academic institution, scholarly society, government agency, or other well-established organization that seeks to enable open access, unrestricted distribution, interoperability, and long-term archiving.</li> </ol> <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ol> <li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.</li> </ol> Assessment of the microbiological quality of popular food items on sale in secondary school canteens of Mauritius <p>This study was carried out to assess the microbiological status of three hot meals served in eight selected school canteens of Mauritius, with two schools randomly selected from each of the four school zones of the island. Three individual samples of farata, panini, or fried noodles were collected at each school during two independent visits. The three individual samples of each food type collected during each visit were then pooled before being subjected to microbiological analyses. A total of 48 composite samples were analyzed. The parameters tested were Total Viable Count (TVC),<em> Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus,</em> and <em>Listeria</em> spp. The microbiological analyses revealed that paninis were deemed as generally acceptable with TVC falling in the range of 3.0-5.7 Log CFU/g and undetectable levels of<em> S. aureus</em> and <em>E. coli. I</em>n contrast, fried noodles and faratas harboured a moderately high level of TVC (4.4-6.7 Log CFU/g) and objectionably high levels<em> S. aureus</em> (3.1 to 5.0 Log CFU/g) and E.<em> coli</em> (3.1-5.1 Log CFU/g) for seven out of the eight schools.</p> Dayawatee Goburdhun Mahima D. Beeharry Keshnee Reega Arvind Ruggoo Hudaa Neetoo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-18 2019-03-18 8 1 10.4081/ijfs.2019.7326 Detection of antibiotic residues among raw beef in Erbil City (Iraq) and impact of temperature on antibiotic remains <p>The presence of antibiotic residues in beef is considered a serious threat to public health. This study aimed to detect antibiotic residues in raw beef and the impact of low and high temperature treatments on residues persistence. A total of 250 sampleswere collected from retail markets in Erbil city (Iraq) and analyzed microbiologically in plates pre-inoculated with <em>Bacillus subtilis.</em> The overall occurrence of antibiotics residues was (10.8%).The highest rate was detected in January (16.7%). Cooking for thirty minutes completely deactivate antibiotic residues against the challenged bacterium. In conclusion, the presence of antibiotic residues in beef samples in Erbil city was high and their persistence is markedly reduced by cooking.</p> Dhary Alewy Al-mashhadany ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-18 2019-03-18 8 1 10.4081/ijfs.2019.7897 Heavy metals accumulation from sewage sludge in the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Trewavas, 1983) during a sludge-earthworm-fish short-term cycling <p>Municipal sewage sludge from wastewater treatment is an important nutritional source for sustainable agriculture. Here, we report on the assessment of the accumulation of heavy metals in Nile tilapia <em>Oreochromis niloticus</em> (Trewavas 1983) fed on earthworms <em>Eisenia fetida</em> reared on soil treated with different concentrations of sewage sludge (25% and 100%) during sludge-earthworm-fish short-term cycling. In this short-term cycling the Nile tilapia collected from the White Nile were chosen as final consumers, whereas the earthworms reared on loam soil mixed with different ratios of sludge were used as a feed for the final consumers. Our results indicate that the concentrations of Cd2+, Cr2+, Pb2+ and Zn2+ in the sludge treated soil are proportional to the sludge content in the soil. Importantly, the accumulation of these heavy metals was significantly low in the earthworms and the Nile tilapia in comparison with the treated soil and that these concentrations in the Nile tilapia were below the international limits recommended by the US Environmental Protection Agency (2014). Moreover, the growth and overall flesh quality of the fish were improved as indicated by the growth increase up to 146% when fed on earthworm reared in 100% sludge. Additionally, our physicochemical properties (<em>i.e.</em> pH, soil moisture, electric conductivity and organic matters) evaluation on the soil indicates an improvement of the soil quality when mixed with sewage sludge. These results suggest a sustainable application of sewage sludge in fish culture owing to its high nutritional values, low cost, and low risk of hazardous heavy metals when using primary consumers with heavy metals bioaccumulation capability such as <em>E. fetida.</em></p> Nahid A.A. Siddig Asma A. Ahmed Sarra A.M. Saad Faisal Hammad Mekky Koua ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-19 2019-03-19 8 1 10.4081/ijfs.2019.7257 Authentication of European sea bass according to production method and geographical origin by light stable isotope ratio and rare earth elements analyses combined with chemometrics <p>In this work, stable isotope ratio (SIR) and rare earth elements (REEs) analyses, combined with multivariate data elaboration, were used to explore the possibility to authenticate European sea bass <em>(Dicentrarchus labrax</em> L.) according to: i) production method (wild or farmed specimens); ii) geographical origin (Western, Central or Eastern Mediterranean Sea). The dataset under investigation included a total of 144 wild and farmed specimens coming from 17 different European areas located in the Mediterranean Sea basin. Samples were subjected to SIR analysis (carbon and nitrogen) and REEs analysis (lanthanum, europium, holmium, erbium, lutetium, and terbium). Then, Analytical data were handled by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and then by Orthogonal Partial Last Square Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA), to obtain functional classification models to qualitatively discriminate sea bass according to the conditions under study. OPLSDA models provided good correct classification rate both for production method and geographical origin. It was confirmed that chemometric elaboration of data obtained from SIR and REEs analyses can be a suitable tool for an accurate authentication of European sea bass.</p> Maria Olga Varrà Sergio Ghidini Emanuela Zanardi Anna Badiani Adriana Ianieri ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-22 2019-03-22 8 1 10.4081/ijfs.2019.7872 Bacteriological assessments of foodborne pathogens in poultry meat at different super shops in Dhaka, Bangladesh <p>Poultry is now considered as a major fast-growing source of meat in the world. The consumers demand safe and hygienic products without contamination with pathogenic microorganisms when the production and consumption of poultry meat is gradually increasing. The present study was conducted to assess the bacterial contamination of dressed chicken collected from different supershops in Dhaka, Bangladesh. The chicken samples from S1, S2, M1, M2 and A supershops were analyzed to determine the enteropathogenic bacteria in poultry meat. Three genera of bacteria were isolated from all of the chicken meat samples. These enteropathogens from various organs of dressing chickens were also enumerated. The isolates were presumptively identified as <em>E. coli, Salmonella</em> spp., and <em>Shigella</em> spp. by conventional culture method. The three enteropathogens were subjected to PCR assay for their confirmation as virulent enteropathogens. Only <em>E. coli</em> isolates were confirmed as pathogenic <em>E. coli</em> (Enterotoxigenic), other isolates were not confirmed as virulent <em>Salmonella</em> spp., <em>Shigella</em> spp.. Results of this study demonstrated that more cautions are recommended for personnel hygiene in processing and handling of poultry and poultry products to prevent occurrence of enterotoxigenic <em>E. coli</em> in dressed poultry meat sold by the supershops in Bangladesh.</p> Jalal Uddin Khaled Hossain Saddam Hossain Karabi Saha Fatema Tuz Jubyda Razoanul Haque Baki Billah Ali Azam Talukder Anowar Khasru Parvez Shuvra Kanti Dey ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-26 2019-03-26 8 1 10.4081/ijfs.2019.6720 Introduction of the nudging method in penitentiary facilities in Italy in view of food waste reduction: Preliminary data <p>The aim of this study was to analyze different aspects of food waste in the specific context of prisons by introducing the <em>nudging method,</em> thanks to the collaboration of District House and Prison of Larino (Italy) involving staff and guests of the penitentiary structure, providing them with the knowledge of the topic and encouraging them to propose creative and effective solutions to prevent and reduce food waste. The study involved n. 50 participants out of total of about 200 prisoners. Data were collected using n.3 questionnaires related to the knowledge of food waste food, the second related to the origin of consumed and food waste and the third collected the participants’ proposals how to reduce food waste. The results show that effects of <em>nudging</em> has awakened the prisoners’ conscience about the social, ethical and economic importance of reducing food waste and a proactive attitude in providing proposals for the reduction of food waste. The most wasted food is bread (35%), pasta (27%) and fresh fruit (20%), provided by the administration because they are considered of inferior quality or prepared and cooked badly. The overwhelming majority (96%) of the participants showed sensitivity about the ethical and economic reasons behind the fight against food waste, making themselves available to contribute to its reduction and suggesting some initiatives. The data collected from the questionnaires related to the causes of waste indicate the need to implement actions aimed at the correct conservation of food and the promotion of good hygiene practices.</p> Vesna Milicevic Rosa La Ginestra Marta Castrica Sabrina Ratti Claudia M. Balzaretti Giampaolo Colavita ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-26 2019-03-26 8 1 10.4081/ijfs.2019.7841 Occurrence and traceability of Salmonella spp. in five Sardinian fermented sausage facilities <p>The aims of the present study were to evaluate the presence of <em>Salmonella</em> in five fermented sausage processing plants and their products during the production process, and to trace the possible sources of contamination. A total of 270 samples were collected: mixture of ground pork meat and fat, products at the end of acidification, sausages at the end of ripening and, during production stages, surfaces in contact with meat and surfaces not in contact with meat. For samples of ground meat, product at the end of acidification and sausages at the end of ripening, the pH and water activity (aw), were determined. All the samples were tested for the presence of <em>Salmonella.</em> Thirtytwo <em>Salmonella</em> isolates were obtained, subjected to serotyping and PFGE. The sausages at the end of ripening pH and aw mean values were 5.39±0.24 and 0.91±0.03, respectively. <em>Salmonella</em> was detected in three processing plants with an overall prevalence of 16.7% in food samples and 5.8% in environmental samples. <em>Salmonella</em> prevalence was 24% in ground meat and products at the end of acidification and was also detected in a sample of sausage at the end of ripening (2%). In environmental samples, Salmonella was detected in 6.6% of surfaces in contact with meat and 5% of surfaces not in contact with meat. Five serotypes were identified among 32 isolates: <em>S</em>. Derby (37.5%), <em>S.</em> Typhimurium and <em>S</em>. Rissen (both 25%), <em>S</em>. Give and monophasic <em>S</em>. Typhimurium (both 6.25%). Six different pulsotypes were obtained with PFGE. The serotypes and the PFGE pattern of the strains were specific for each facility with no overlapping between different processing plants. The same observation can be pointed out considering different sampling days for the same processing plants, thus presumably indicating the raw material (ground pork meat and fat) as the source of contamination. The detection of <em>Salmonella</em> in a sample of sausage at the end of ripening highlights the ability of the pathogen to survive during manufacturing process.</p> Francesca Piras Carlo Spanu Anna Maria Mocci Mariella Demontis Enrico Petro Luigi De Santis Christian Scarano ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-26 2019-03-26 8 1 10.4081/ijfs.2019.8011 Quality parameters of hunted game meat: Sensory analysis and pH monitoring <p>The aim of the present research is to propose a new, quick and objective method for the certification of hunted and/or culled wild game meat quality and to monitor its origin and the hunting practices adopted by hunters. The expected deliverable is a new labelling scheme for Italian hunted wild game meat that will guarantee high quality and safety standards for consumers and will decrease transaction costs of the supply chains. During the 2015, 2016 and 2017 hunting seasons, 1,056 hunted wild ungulates were sampled. Specifically, alpine chamois (n=537), roe deer (n=113), red deer (n=342) and wild boar (n=64), which were all hunted in the VCO2-Ossola Nord hunting district (Verbania Province, Piedmont, Italy). Samples of the <em>longissimus dorsi</em> were collected to evaluate the nutritional parameters and the acid profiles of the products. As a measure of meat quality, pH values have been recorded after slaughtering by inserting a probe in the <em>semimembranosus</em> muscle. The results were categorized as DFD (pH≥6,2), intermediate DFD (5,8≤pH&lt;6,2) and high-quality meat (pH &lt;5,8). As explanatory variables for the quality of wild game meat, differences based on age, gender and hunting practices were considered. Concerning the latter variables, measures were collected from animals received at hunting districts control centers by trained technicians who also collected information on the hunting practices,<em> i.e</em>., bleeding and evisceration of the carcasses and number of shots. Nutritional values showed low fat (&lt;3 g per 100 g), low saturated fat (&lt;1,5 g per 100 g) and high protein contents. Furthermore, wild game meat has high values of ω3 and CLA, ensuring a positive ω6/ω3 ratio. Differences were found in the concentrations of fat between age and gender, considering that during the mating season, adult males’ weight loss can exceed 40%. Hunting practices seem to affect meat quality.</p> Roberto Viganò Eugenio Demartini Fiammetta Riccardi Annafrancesca Corradini Martina Besozzi Paolo Lanfranchi Pietro Luigi Chiappini Andrea Cottini Anna Gaviglio ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-28 2019-03-28 8 1 10.4081/ijfs.2019.7724 Consumers’ preference and willingness to pay for graded beef in Polokwane municipality, South Africa <p>Consumers around the world are progressively becoming more concerned and aware about food standards, quality and safety issues. The purpose of this study was to determine consumers’ preference regarding safe and quality beef and willingness to pay (WTP) for graded beef in Polokwane municipality, Limpopo Province, South Africa. The research surveyed 150 consumers using a structured questionnaire to collect data on consumer characteristics and responses to different bid levels for graded beef. Analytical methods were descriptive statistics, Likert scales, contingent valuation method to evaluate respondents’ mean WTP for graded beef and logit model to determine the dependence of WTP on consumers’ socioeconomic characteristics. Results showed that consumers prefer their beef tender, with less fat and bones and labelled with price, grade/class, size or quantity of the product and lastly quality inspection or certification indicator. Over half of the respondents (53%) were aware of grading or classification systems. The results further revealed that most respondents are willing to pay an increase of 16.04% over the current price for beef. This could be an opportunity for investments in beef label industry. Consumer characteristics including age, income, gender and household size significantly influenced WTP for graded beef in Polokwane Municipality. Marketing strategies considered by beef product investors should target young, female and wealthier consumers. Grading with respect to quality attributes would make beef sales at differentiated prices possible. This will eventually enhance sales volume and returns for all stakeholders along the value chain.</p> Florah L. Makweya Isaac B. Oluwatayo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-28 2019-03-28 8 1 10.4081/ijfs.2019.7654 Farm products’ direct sale in accordance with national and EC Regulations <p>Primary production has always been considered the weak link in the entire food production chain (from farm to fork) and, due also to the grave health and food emergencies that have taken place over the years (BSE, dioxin, avian flu etc.), greater attention has been focused on the production stage, together with the need to regain the consumers’ faith. To preserve and support small farms in a local setting and, consistent with the aims of flexibility and respecting the main requisites contained in the EC Regulations (No. 852/2004; No. 853/2004) (European Commission, 2004; 2004a), production is allowed for tastingadministration on the premises and the processing and sales of agricultural products produced exclusively on the farm, such as: fresh meat from poultry and rabbits and small farmed wild animals; processed meats obtained from animals raised on the farm and from hunting; fishing and aquaculture products; raw milk for direct human consumption and dairy products; eggs, honey, fruit and vegetables, woodland products; jams and preserved fruit, flours, vegetable preserves, wild above ground and underground mushrooms; dried fruits, fruit juices, cereals, syrups; oil, wine, bread and baked products. This possibility is reserved for individual farmers or co-operatives, registered in the company register according to Article 8 of the Law 29th December 1993 No. 580 (Italian Republic, 1993); who may sell directly inside and outside farm, products coming mainly from the respective farms, observing the current regulations regarding health and hygiene. All this should provide an instrument for rural and competitive development for the entire European agricultural production chain strongly influenced by the marketing conditions imposed by the mass retailing groups on their own suppliers. Not least is the possibility of creating work and occupation and adequately counteracting the phenomenon of the depopulation of the countryside, encouraging the return to agricultural activities on the part of young people; and, consequently, a form of safeguarding the environment by reducing the costs linked to hydro-geological instability and soil maintenance. This trend, together with the national directions, may represent a support even for small local farms which, taking advantage of simplified procedures consistent with the objectives of flexibility of the community Regulations (EC) (No. 852/2004; No. 853/2004) (European Commission, 2004; 2004a), may take part in the promotion of agricultural markets managed directly by the farmers as sales points for local products (farmers’ markets), so as to guarantee a fairer price and consolidate the territorial link between production and consumption (short distribution chain or short circuit). Without, of course, renouncing the necessary prerequisites for placing any food on the market: health-hygiene; traceability; health and well-being of the animals; safeguarding of the environment and the plants.</p> Massimo Renato Micheli Alfredo Rossi Giovanni Rossi Alfonso Rosamilia Emanuele Guidi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-22 2019-03-22 8 1 10.4081/ijfs.2019.7119