Italian Journal of Food Safety 2019-06-17T18:17:19+02:00 Emanuela Fusinato Open Journal Systems <p>The <strong>Italian Journal of Food Safety (IJFS)</strong> is the official journal of the <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Italian Association of Veterinary Food Hygienists (AIVI)</a>. The Journal addresses veterinary food hygienists, specialists in the food industry and other experts offering technical support and advice on food of animal origin. The <strong>Italian Journal of Food Safety</strong> publishes original research papers concerning food safety and hygiene, animal health, zoonoses and food safety, food safety economics. Reviews, editorials, technical reports, brief notes, conference proceedings, letters to the Editor, and book reviews are also welcome. Every article published in the Journal will be peer-reviewed by experts in the field and selected by members of the Editorial Board.</p> Effect of dietary inclusion of different lipid supplements on performance and carcass quality traits of growing beef heifers 2019-06-17T18:17:19+02:00 Attilio Luigi Mordenti Nico Brogna Flavia Merendi Luca Sardi Marco Tassinari Ludovica Maria Eugenia Mammi Elisa Giaretta Andrea Formigoni <p>The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of dietary extruded flaxseed and/or rumen-protected lipids on growth performance and carcass quality of growing beef heifers. Sixty-three crossbreed heifers (Charolais X Limousine) were distributed into seven experimental groups, balanced in terms of age and live weight. Diets fed to the groups were isoproteic and differed in both, the dietary lipid source (extruded linseed and/or rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid) and the supplementation length (90 or 180 days before slaughtering), having the same total amount of lipids and vitamin E, during their finishing period. The results obtained in the present study confirm that in low-protein diets, the inclusion of rumen-protected CLA, alone or in combination with flaxseed, did not bring any evident effect on feed intake, performance and carcass quality traits of growing beef heifers.</p> 2019-05-23T13:58:19+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Evaluation of freezing point in milk from buffalos reared in Calabria, Italy 2019-06-17T18:17:18+02:00 Carlotta Ceniti Domenico Britti Francesca Trimboli Valeria Maria Morittu Vincenzo Lopreiato Nicola Costanzo <p>Evaluation of freezing point is one of the most common technique used to detect milk adulteration such as addition of external water to increase volume. The aim of this study was to evaluate the freezing point of buffalo milk using infrared spectroscopy and to assess how it is influenced by other milk components. A total of 361 individual buffalo milk samples were collected monthly from March to August of 2017 in a dairy farm in Catanzaro district, Italy. Samples were tested for freezing point, urea, acetone and beta-hydroxybutyrate, percent of fat, protein, lactose, casein, by Fourier Transformed Spectroscopy. The pH and daily milk production were also recorded. Freezing point ranged from -0.574°C to - 0.512°C and the mean values was -0.545°C ±0.010. According to lactation stage, freezing point decreased until 210 days post-partum reaching the minimum value of −0.550°C, then it slightly increased during lactation; according to sampling month the highest and lowest values were recorded in August and June, respectively. A positive correlation between freezing point and lactose content were evidenced (r=0.1806, P&lt;0.05). Moreover, a faintly positive correlation was also found between freezing point and beta-idroxibutirrate (r=0.0869, P&lt;0.05) and acetone (r=0.0096, P&lt;0.05), whereas a negative correlation with fat (r=−0.2356, P&lt;0.05), protein (r=-0.1855, P&lt;0.05), casein (r=-0.2127, P&lt;0.05) and urea (r=-0.1229, P&lt;0.05) was evidenced.</p> 2019-05-23T14:10:35+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Edible earthworms in a food safety perspective: Preliminary data 2019-06-17T18:17:16+02:00 Cecilia Conti Marta Castrica Claudia M. Balzaretti Doriana E.A. Tedesco <p>The world population and global food demand are increasing, particularly the demand for animal protein sources. At the same time, society produces large quantities of food waste. Sustainable solutions, to ensure enough food and to optimize the use of resources, are necessary. Earthworms grown on fruit and vegetable waste (FVW) can be a future alternative food source, contributing to waste disposal efficiency. They improve food sustainability under nutritional and environmental dimensions. These topics are included in the philosophy of the circular economy. Earthworms, characterized by a high percentage of proteins and minerals, are used as foods in some world countries, including China and the Philippines. In order to consider safety aspects of earthworms grown on FVW as food sources, this study evaluated the microbiological quality of FVW (i) used as growth substrate; fresh earthworms (ii) and earthworms’ meal (iii) resulting from two technological processes (freeze-drying and drying). The efficiency of these technologies in reducing microbial contamination was evaluated. Microbiological analyses revealed the absence of <em>Salmonella</em> spp. and <em>Listeria monocytogenes</em> in FVW, in fresh earthworms and in earthworms’ meal. Fresh earthworms’ results fell within the limits of acceptability, if related to the limit for minced meat (Interdepartmental Center for Research and Documentation on Food Safety). Both freeze-drying and drying step led to a further reduction of microbial contamination, confirming the importance of the processing methods. In conclusion, earthworms can represent an innovative biotechnological response to re-use FVW, a valuable food supplement of animal proteins and a strategy to improve food sustainability.</p> 2019-06-03T15:19:25+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Decontamination of knives used in a slaughterhouse by a commercial non-thermal UV-C treatment 2019-06-17T18:17:14+02:00 Susanne Raschle Claudio Zweifel Katrin Zurfluh Roger Stephan <p>To assess the antimicrobial effect of a commercial UV-C system, knives inoculated with <em>Escherichia coli</em> and <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> as well as naturally contaminated and collected from the wet and clean area of a slaughterhouse knives were examined. For inoculated knives, UVC treatment for 30 s reduced mean<em> E. col</em>i counts by 5.1 log CFU cm-2 and mean <em>S. aureus</em> counts by 4.5 log CFU cm-2. The presence of blood lowered mean reductions to 3.4 log CFU cm-2 for<em> E. coli</em> and to 2.5 log CFU cm-2 for<em> S. aureus.</em> The presence of fat had a greater negative impact on the efficacy of the UV-C treatment resulting in mean reductions &lt;1.8 log CFU cm-2. For naturally contaminated knives from a slaughterhouse, total viable counts (TVC) before UV-C treatment varied considerably (wet area: 2.0-6.0 log CFU cm-2, clean area: 1.0–3.0 log CFU cm-2). UV-C treatment for 30s reduced mean TVC by 0.8 log CFU cm-2 (wet area) and 0.6 log CFU cm-2 (clean area), but the effect varied greatly between individual knives. Thus, under commercial conditions, the antibacterial effect of UV-C for the decontamination of knives is affected by the presence of additional contaminations like blood or fat. The adequate cleaning of the knives prior to UV-C decontamination is therefore of central importance.</p> 2019-06-03T15:29:33+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Identification of virulence and antibiotic resistance factors in Arcobacter butzleri isolated from bovine milk by Whole Genome Sequencing 2019-06-17T18:17:13+02:00 Antonio Parisi Loredana Capozzi Angelica Bianco Marta Caruso Laura Latorre Antonella Costa Anna Giannico Donato Ridolfi Carmela Bulzacchelli Gianfranco Santagada <p><em>Arcobacter butzleri</em> is a pathogenic aerobic bacterium responsible for diarrhea and septicemia in humans. It is frequently isolated from food products of animal origin, including milk and dairy products. To data, few reports are currently available on the genetic characteristics and virulence profiles of <em>A. butzleri</em>. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic diversity and to characterize the virulence and antibiotic resistance profiles of 10 <em>A. butzleri</em> strains isolated from bovine milk samples by Whole Genome Sequence (WGS). Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) revealed that three isolates belonged to the ST66, two to the ST420 and the remaining five strains to the ST627, ST629, ST630, ST633 and ST637, respectively. The 100% of the strains carried <em>cadF, pldA, ciaB, cj1349, mviN</em> and <em>tlyA</em> virulence factors genes; 60% <em>iroE;</em> 50% <em>irgA;</em> 10% <em>hecB.</em> Resistome prediction showed a multidrug resistance: 100% of isolates resulted resistant to fluoroquinolones and tetracycline; 90% of strains to rifampicin and cephalosporins and a minor percentage to other antibiotics. Furthermore, the 50% of strains harbored four mutations in <em>Mycobacterium tuberculosis katG</em> gene conferring resistance to isoniazid. The study provided interesting data on the virulence characteristics and on the genetic endowment related to the antimicrobial resistance of<em> A. butzleri</em> isolates from milk. The determination of the STs also added information concerning the genetic variability of this microorganism. To date, a very limited number of studies have been published on the typing of<em> A. butzleri</em> using WGS, so this paper proposes an innovative methodological approach that allows a rapid and complete characterization of pathogenic microorganisms.</p> 2019-06-04T12:01:24+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##