Evaluation of growth potential and growth dynamics of Listeria monocytogenes on ready-to-eat fresh fruit
The consumption of fresh or RTE fruits is increasing every year and Listeria monocytogenes has been identified on raw or minimally processed fruits. A food product can become contaminated with L. monocytogenes anywhere along the pathway of food production during planting, harvesting, packaging, distribution and serving. The aim of this work was to assess the microbiological risks associated with consumption of ready- to- eat fruit such as melon, pineapple, coconut and fruit salad. The presence of Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and L. monocytogenes was also evaluated. Microbiological challenge tests were carried out for the evaluation of the L. monocytogenes growth potential in RTE fruit stored at 4 and 8°C. E. coli counts resulted under the detection limit of 10 CFU g-1, Salmonella and L. monocytogenes were not detected (absence in 25g). The growth potential values in coconut and melon (δ>0.5) showed the growth capacity of Listeria at the temperatures considered. A low initial load, also derived from good hygiene practices, and correct storage temperatures are essential to reduce bacterial growth in RTE fruit. The challenge test showed how each type of RTE fruit has a different commercial life based on its specific growth potential and that food should be stored at temperatures not higher than 4°C for a short period.
Angelo KM, Jackson KA, Wong KK, Hoekstra RM, Jackson BR. Assessment of the Incubation Period for Invasive Listeriosis. Clin Infect Dis. 2016;63(11):1487-1489. doi:10.1093/cid/ciw569
Angelo KM, Conrad AR, Saupe A, et al. Multistate outbreak of Listeria monocytogenes infections linked to whole apples used in commercially produced, prepackaged caramel apples: United States, 2014-2015. Epidemiol Infect. 2017;145(5):848-856. doi:10.1017/S0950268816003083
Bae D, Seo KS, Zhang T, Wang C. Characterization of a potential Listeria monocytogenes virulence factor associated with attachment to fresh produce. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2013;79(22):6855-6861. doi:10.1128/AEM.01006-13
Bencardino D, Vitali LA, Petrelli D. Microbiological evaluation of ready-to-eat iceberg lettuce during shelf-life and effectiveness of household washing methods. Ital J Food Saf. 2018;7(1):6913. Published 2018 Apr 10. doi:10.4081/ijfs.2018.6913
Beuchat LR. Pathogenic Microorganisms Associated with Fresh Produce. J Food Prot. 1996;59(2):204-216. doi:10.4315/0362-028X-59.2.204
Bohaychuk VM, Bradbury RW, Dimock R, et al. A microbiological survey of selected Alberta- grown fresh produce from farmers' markets in Alberta, Canada. J Food Prot. 2009;72(2):415-420. doi:10.4315/0362-028x-72.2.415
Buchanan RL, Gorris LGM, Hayman MM, Jackson TC & Whiting RC (2017). A review of Listeria monocytogenes: An update on outbreaks, virulence, dose-response, ecology, and risk assessments. Food Control. (75) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2016.12.016
Commission Regulation (EC) No 1441/2007. (2007). Amending Regulation (EC) No 2073/2005 on microbiological criteria for food stuffs. https://eur- lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2007:322:0012:0029:EN:PDF. Accessed 15 June 2020.
Coroneo V, Carraro V, Aissani N, et al. Detection of Virulence Genes and Growth Potential in Listeria monocytogenes Strains Isolated from Ricotta Salata Cheese. J Food Sci. 2016;81(1):M114-M120. doi:10.1111/1750-3841.13173
Chang JI, Hsu TE. Effects of compositions on food waste composting. Bioresour Technol. 2008;99(17):8068-8074. doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2008.03.04
Dussurget O, Pizarro-Cerda J, Cossart P. Molecular determinants of Listeria monocytogenes virulence. Annu Rev Microbiol. 2004;58:587-610. doi:10.1146/annurev.micro.57.030502.090934
European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) (2018) Annual Epidemiological ReportListeriosis.https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/sites/default/files/ documents/surveillance-antimicrobial-resistance-Europe-2018.pdf Accessed 3 September 2020.
Gnanou Besse N, Beaufort A, Rudelle S, Denis C, Lombard B. Evaluation of an enumeration method for Listeria monocytogenes at low contamination levels in cold-smoked salmon. Int J Food Microbiol. 2008;124(3):271-274. doi:10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2008.03.018
Loncarevic S, Johannessen GS, Rørvik LM. Bacteriological quality of organically grown leaf lettuce in Norway. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2005;41(2):186-189. doi:10.1111/j.1472- 765X.2005.0173
Marras L, Carraro V, Sanna C, Sanna A, Ingianni A, Coroneo V. Growth of Listeria monocytogenes in ready to eat salads at different storage temperatures and valuation of virulence genes expression. Ann Ig. 2019;31(4):374-384. doi:10.7416/ai.2019.229
McCollum JT, Cronquist AB, Silk BJ, et al. Multistate outbreak of listeriosis associated with cantaloupe. N Engl J Med. 2013;369(10):944-953. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1215837
McMahon MA, Wilson IG. The occurrence of enteric pathogens and Aeromonas species in organic vegetables. Int J Food Microbiol. 2001;70(1-2):155-162. doi:10.1016/s0168- 1605(01)00535-
Mukherjee A, Speh D, Dyck E, Diez-Gonzalez F. Preharvest evaluation of coliforms, Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in organic and conventional produce grown by Minnesota farmers. J Food Prot. 2004;67(5):894-900. doi:10.4315/0362-028x-67.5.894
Mukherjee A, Speh D, Diez-Gonzalez F. Association of farm management practices with risk of Escherichia coli contamination in pre-harvest produce grown in Minnesota and Wisconsin. Int J Food Microbiol. 2007;120(3):296-302. doi:10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2007.09.007
Ricci A., Allende A., Bolton D., Chemaly M.& Davies R. (2018). Listeria monocytogenes contamination of ready-to-eat foods and the risk for human health in the https://efsa.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.2903/j.efsa.2018.5134. Accessed 26 June 2020.
Roccato A, Uyttendaele M, Membré JM. Analysis of domestic refrigerator temperatures and home storage time distributions for shelf-life studies and food safety risk assessment. Food Res Int. 2017;96:171-181. doi:10.1016/j.foodres.2017.02.017
Sagoo SK, Little CL, Mitchell RT. The microbiological examination of ready-to-eat organic vegetables from retail establishments in the United Kingdom. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2001;33(6):434-439. doi:10.1046/j.1472-765x.2001.01026.x
Sagoo SK, Little CL, Ward L, Gillespie IA, Mitchell RT. Microbiological study of ready-to-eat salad vegetables from retail establishments uncovers a national outbreak of salmonellosis. J Food Prot. 2003;66(3):403-409. doi:10.4315/0362-028x-66.3.403
Salazar JK, Sahu SN, Hildebrandt IM, et al. Growth Kinetics of Listeria monocytogenes in Cut Produce. J Food Prot. 2017;80(8):1328-1336. doi:10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-16-516
Sheng L, Edwards K, Tsai HC, Hanrahan I, Zhu MJ. Fate of Listeria monocytogenes on Fresh Apples under Different Storage Temperatures. Front Microbiol. 2017;8:1396. Published 2017 Jul 24. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2017.01396
Silva S, Teixeira P, Oliveira R, Azeredo J. Adhesion to and viability of Listeria monocytogenes on food contact surfaces. J Food Prot. 2008;71(7):1379-1385. doi:10.4315/0362-028x- 71.7.1379
Taormina PJ, Beuchat LR. Survival of Listeria monocytogenes in commercial food-processing equipment cleaning solutions and subsequent sensitivity to sanitizers and heat. J Appl Microbiol. 2002;92(1):71-80. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2672.2002.01488.x
Zhu Q, Gooneratne R, Hussain MA. Listeria monocytogenes in Fresh Produce: Outbreaks, Prevalence and Contamination Levels. Foods. 2017;6(3):21. Published 2017 Mar 9. doi:10.3390/foods6030021
- Abstract views: 596
- PDF: 176
- HTML: 0
Copyright (c) 2021 the Author(s)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.