https://pagepressjournals.org/index.php/ecj/issue/feed Emergency Care Journal 2019-08-25T17:41:21+02:00 Francesca Baccino francesca.baccino@pagepress.org Open Journal Systems <p><strong>Emergency Care Journal </strong> is the official Journal of the <a href="http://www.acemc.it/index.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Academy of Emergency Medicine and Care</a> (AcEMC). The journal is an international, peer-reviewed journal dedicated to improve the quality of care by publishing the highest quality science for acute medical care and related medical specialties. The journal welcomes submissions from international contributors and researchers of all specialties involved in acute medical conditions. <strong>Emergency Care Journal</strong> publishes <em>Original Articles, Review Articles, Opinion Reports, Case Reports, Images in Emergency, Letters to the Editors, Commentaries, Book Reviews, Editorials</em> and other educational information related to the practice, teaching, and environment of emergency medicine. In addition to general topics, ECJ also publishes articles on out-of-hospital emergency medical services, pediatric emergency medicine, injury and disease prevention, health policy and ethics, disaster management, toxicology, and related topics. Although most of published research is clinical, there is also strong interest for basic science research pertinent to emergency medicine, thus including all clinical, diagnostics and therapeutic areas of medicine involved in the emergency care management.</p> <p>This journal does not apply charge for publication to Authors as it is fully supported by institutional funds (<a href="http://www.acemc.it/index.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Academy of Emergency Medicine and Care</a>).</p> https://pagepressjournals.org/index.php/ecj/article/view/8214 Procedural sedation in a tertiary referral trauma centre: A retrospective audit 2019-08-25T17:41:10+02:00 James Falconer James.falconer@act.gov.au Drew Richardson James.falconer@act.gov.au <p>Procedural sedation complications are common in Australasian Emergency Departments (EDs). This study aimed to compare procedural sedation complications between The Canberra Hospital ED (TCH ED) and the available Australasian literature and to determine if sedation associated complications were amenable to simple intervention. All procedural sedations performed over two and half years in TCH ED were retrospectively reviewed. Complications were defined as per the previous comparable Australasian study, as those events requiring an intervention. 1793 sedations were reviewed: 1125 (63%) for orthopaedic procedures, other 276 (a collection of painful procedures), 208 suturing and 169 direct current cardioversions. The median age was 29 years with 538 (30%) children under the age of 16 years. The complication rate in the initial six-months was 4.0% dropping to 1.3% after multiple education sessions before rebounding to 3.1% in the last six-months. The overall complication rate was 3.1% (95% CI 2.3-4.0) which is significantly lower (P&lt;0.0001) than the comparable previous major Australian study (7.2%, 95% CI 6.2-8.2). There was significantly less use of Midazolam (10.3% <em>vs</em> 23.8% P&lt;0.00001) and Morphine (1.5% <em>vs </em>7.9% P&lt;0.00001). There was one case of laryngospasm requiring intubation but subsequently discharged at baseline, otherwise no recorded major adverse events. Therefore procedural sedation at TCH ED has a complication rate less than that previously reported and this may be due to evolution of the agents used. The complications seem to be readily amenable to education around prevention, but the benefit of these education sessions appears to decay over time.</p> 2019-08-23T12:32:56+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://pagepressjournals.org/index.php/ecj/article/view/8119 Efficacy and tolerability of fixed association of oxycodone and naloxone in elderly patients with ribs fracture: An 18-month retrospective study 2019-08-25T17:41:11+02:00 Alessandro Riccardi dottriccardi@gmail.com Beatrice Spinola m.spinola@asl2.liguria.it Pierangela Minuto p.minuto@asl2.liguria.it Marco Licenziato m.licenziato@asl2.liguria.it Valeria Ghiglione v.ghiglione@asl2.liguria.it Roberto Lerza r.lerza@asl2.liguria.it <p>Blunt chest trauma with isolated or multiple rib fractures constitutes a common presentation in Emergency Department (ED), particularly in elderly people. Rib fractures in the elderly create short- and long-term disabilities with a dramatic impact. Pain management in the elderly could be problematic due to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) contraindication or interaction with other drugs. We performed this retrospective study collecting and retrieving all patients aged 65 or older, with a diagnosis of rib(s) fracture(s) during an 18-month period. We analyzed the different treatments chosen, and divided them into subgroups: oxycodone- naloxone, and other treatments (also divided in: codeineacetaminophen; NSAID or Acetaminophen; Tramadol or Tapentadol). A total of 475 elderly patients (aged 65 and older) with single or multiple rib fractures were evaluated in our ED in 18 months: of these 410 patients were considered eligible, with a mean age of 79.28 years (standard deviation 7.83). 185 were male and 225 were female. Our study confirms the efficacy and tolerability of fixed association of oxycodone and naloxone. This association determined the highest and fastest reduction on Numeric Pain Scale reported by patients and is significantly better than other drugs in oral administration.</p> 2019-08-09T08:12:13+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://pagepressjournals.org/index.php/ecj/article/view/8256 Cyanide intoxication by apricot kernels: A case report and literature review 2019-08-25T17:41:18+02:00 Faruk Ekinci farukekinci83@gmail.com Dincer Yildizdas dyildizdas@gmail.com Alper Ates dralperates@hotmail.com Naime Gökay naimegokay@hotmail.com <p>Acute cyanide intoxication is a serious healthcare problem due to its potentially life threatening and fatal toxic effects. Ingestion of cyanide containing foods is an important source of cyanide poisoning and apricot kernels contain significant amounts of such cyanogenic compounds. Herein we report a previously healthy 4- year-old boy admitted to our emergency department with complaints of vomiting and sudden onset of unconsciousness after ingestion of apricot kernels. He was diagnosed as acute cyanide poisoning and treated with a specific antidote; hydroxocobalamin. Our report concludes with previous cases of cyanide poisoning after ingestion of apricot kernels and a quick look at sources, manifestations and treatment of acute cyanide poisoning.</p> 2019-08-07T15:10:55+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://pagepressjournals.org/index.php/ecj/article/view/8151 Use of ultrasound for the assessment of dehydration in pediatric patients with mild to moderate dehydration 2019-08-25T17:41:19+02:00 Yalda Ravanshad ravanshady@mums.ac.ir Anoush Azarfar azarfar@mums.ac.ir Seied Ali Alamdaran Alamdaransa@mums.ac.ir Mitra Naseri naserim@mums.ac.ir Gholamreza Sarvari sarvarigr@mums.ac.ir Sepideh Bagheri Bagheris@mums.ac.ir Armin Vahabi Sani vahabisania@mums.ac.ir <p>Management of children with acute gastroenteritis is based upon dehydration estimation. There is no clinical or paraclinical tool which exactly estimates the dehydration degree. Recently ultrasonographic parameters as inferior vena cava (IVC) diameter and aorta (AO) have been used in some studies for this purpose. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of ultrasound in detecting mild and moderate degrees of dehydration in children. The study was performed in the emergency department of Dr. Sheikh’s Children Hospital, Mashhad, Iran. Children with mild to moderate degrees of dehydration according to World health Organization (WHO) clinical scale were enrolled. Their inferior vena cava diameters, aorta and IVC/AO ratio were measured before and after fluid therapy using ultrasound. Ultrasound was performed by two pediatric sonographers. 36 patients (mean age of 16.94±11.02 months) entered the study. 11 patients had mild and 25 moderate dehydration according to WHO clinical scale. All 11 patients with mild dehydration received oral rehydration. 13 patients in the moderate dehydration group received intravenous rehydration because of oral intolerance to fluids and recurrent vomiting. IVC diameter and IVC/AO ratio after fluid therapy in children with both mild and moderate dehydration degrees was significantly greater (P&lt;0.001). However, we did not observe any significant difference in aorta diameter before and after fluid therapy. Using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve, the proper cut-off point of IVC/AO ratio to differentiate patients with moderate dehydration from mild dehydration is equal to 0.782 with sensitivity and specificity equal to 88% and 45.45% respectively. Further, the area under the ROC curve for this cut-off is equal to 0.569. In conclusion, ultrasonography cannot differentiate between mild and moderate dehydration degrees, but studies with larger population of patients should be performed.</p> 2019-08-05T10:17:28+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://pagepressjournals.org/index.php/ecj/article/view/8249 Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survival in Athens: Data from a Greek public hospital 2019-08-25T17:41:20+02:00 Zisimangelos S. Solomos zisimosmed@gmail.com Maria S. Tatsi Tatsi.mm@gmail.com Victoria E. Psomiadou psomiadouvictoria@gmail.com Angeliki D. Tsifi atsifi@hotmail.com Dimitrios S. Theodoridis jimdrteo@gmail.com Aikaterini P. Petropoulou aikatpetropoulou@gmail.com Konstantinos G. Miltiadou connmilt@gmail.com <p>Although out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA) are a major cause of mortality internationally, data regarding survival in Greece remains scarce and inconclusive. The aim of this study is to assess the immediate and 24-hour survival of OHCA sufferers during a 5-year period in a public hospital in Athens. A retrospective study was conducted on all cardiac arrests that were transferred to our hospital during a five-year period (2011-2015). Our primary objective was to calculate return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and 24-hour survival ratios. Our secondary objective was to estimate 30-day survival. Demographic data was also collected. 283 OHCA were included in the study. The mean age was 67.2 years and the male: female ratio was 2. Medical history was available for 33.6% of patients. 72.1% of cases were transferred to the emergency department by ambulance and 2.8% by private means of transport. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was attempted on 57.6% of cardiac arrests, 8.6% regained ROSC and 6.1% survived for 24 hours. The 30-day survival was expected to be less than 3.5%. In our institution, ROSC, 24-hour and expected 30-day survival were lower than the European average and in accordance with the recent prospective Eureca One study. However, data from our institution cannot be generalised and multicenter studies are required in order to clarify OHCA outcomes in Greece.</p> 2019-07-09T14:46:56+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://pagepressjournals.org/index.php/ecj/article/view/8275 A rare cause of inguinal region swelling and pain in women: Hydrocele of the canal of Nuck 2019-08-25T17:41:21+02:00 Bahjat Barakat bahjat.barakat@aosp.bo.it Massimo Barakat massimo.barakat@gmail.com Francesco Vasuri francesco.vasuri@aosp.bo.it Raffaele Pezzilli raffaele.pezzilli@gmail.com <p>The most common diagnoses of pelvic/supra-pubic pain are related to uterine, gonadal, renal, and bladder complications. Hydrocele of the canal of Nuck is a rare cause of inguinal swelling in women, which occurs due to a patent processus vaginalis. The canal of Nuck typically closes in infancy, however, in some women, the canal of Nuck remains patent, allowing for the development of canal of Nuck cysts or indirect inguinal hernias. Until now, about 400 cases of this illness have been reported worldwide. Clinically, these cysts are usually fluctuant, painless, or may present locally painful masses in the labia or inguinal regions which are not reducible; we report the case of a young female which was characterized by persistent suprapubic pain in which the diagnosis initially made by ultrasonography was further confirmed by contrast-enhanced computed tomography, surgery and pathological examination.</p> 2019-07-04T16:35:58+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##