European Journal of Translational Myology <p>The <strong>European Journal of Translational Myology</strong> (formerly known as <em>Basic and Applied Myology</em>) is the European reference forum for Translational Myology. The <strong>European Journal of Translational Myology</strong>&nbsp;is a multifaceted journal studying myology from various perspectives: basic, cellular and molecular, genetic, clinical, and translational proper.</p> PAGEPress Scientific Publications, Pavia, Italy en-US European Journal of Translational Myology 2037-7452 <p><strong>PAGEPress</strong> has chosen to apply the&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial 4.0 International License</strong></a>&nbsp;(CC BY-NC 4.0) to all manuscripts to be published.<br><br> An Open Access Publication is one that meets the following two conditions:</p> <ol> <li>the author(s) and copyright holder(s) grant(s) to all users a free, irrevocable, worldwide, perpetual right of access to, and a license to copy, use, distribute, transmit and display the work publicly and to make and distribute derivative works, in any digital medium for any responsible purpose, subject to proper attribution of authorship, as well as the right to make small numbers of printed copies for their personal use.</li> <li>a complete version of the work and all supplemental materials, including a copy of the permission as stated above, in a suitable standard electronic format is deposited immediately upon initial publication in at least one online repository that is supported by an academic institution, scholarly society, government agency, or other well-established organization that seeks to enable open access, unrestricted distribution, interoperability, and long-term archiving.</li> </ol> <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ol> <li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.</li> </ol> Innervation of the thoracolumbar fascia <p>The aim of the study was to obtain information on the sensory functions of the thoracolumbar fascia (TLF). The types of nerve fibres present in the TLF were visualized with specific antibodies to neuropeptides and sympathetic fibres. Most data were obtained from the TLF in rats, but some findings from the human fascia are also included. The only receptive nerve ending found was the free nerve ending, i.e. no corpuscular receptors existed in our specimen. An exclusive innervation with free nerve endings speaks for a nociceptive function, but the TLF may also fulfill proprioceptive functions, since many of the free nerve endings have a low mechanical threshold. Most of the fibres could be visualized with antibodies to CGRP [calcitonin gene- related peptide (CGRP)] and SP [substance P (SP)]. The latter ones most likely were nociceptors. The TLF contained a great proportion of postganglionic sympathetic fibres, which may be vasoconstrictors. A comparison between an inflamed and intact fascia showed an increase of the CGRP- and SP-positive fibres in the inflamed TLF. This finding could be one explanation for the low back pain of many patients, since practically all lesions of the fascia are accompanied by a sterile inflammation.</p> Siegfried Mense ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-09-06 2019-09-06 29 3 10.4081/ejtm.2019.8297 Role of fasciae in nonspecific low back pain <p>More and more evidences show how the thoracolumbar fascia is involved with nonspecific low back pain. Additionally, recent studies about anatomy have shown the presence of a continuity between the thoracolumbar fascia and the deep fascia of the limbs; but actually, a dysfunction of just the thoracolumbar fascia or of the tightly contiguous myofascial tissue is generally recognized as possible cause of nonspecific low back pain. Five patients among those affected by nonspecific low back pain were manipulated just on those fascial spots that were painful, when palpated, and located in other areas of the body than the low back one. Each patient reported a clinically significant reduction of the painful symptoms (a Pain Numerical Rating Scale score difference ≥ 2) straight after the manipulation. A dysfunction of the myofascial tissue that is not tightly contiguous with the symptomatic area is then suggested to be taken into consideration among the causes of nonspecific low back-pain.</p> Giulia Casato Carla Stecco Riccardo Busin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-06 2019-08-06 29 3 10.4081/ejtm.2019.8330 The crural interosseous membrane re-visited: a histological and microscopic study <p>The aim of this study was to characterize the microscopic structure and sensory nerve endings of the crural interosseous membrane (IM). 13 IMs from 7 cadavers were used to analyze the organization of the collagen fibers, IM’s thickness, distribution of elastic fibers and nerve elements. The IM is mainly a two-layer collagen fascicle structure with the collagen fibers of adjacent layers orientated along different directions, forming angles of 30.5 +/- 1.7° at proximal and 26.6 +/- 2.1° at distal part (P&gt;0.05). The percentage of elastic fibers between the two layers and inside the collagen fascicle layer is 10.1 +/- 0.5% and 2.2 +/- 0.1% (P&lt;0.001). The IM’s thickness at proximal, middle, and distal parts is 268.5 +/- 18.6μm; 293.2 +/- 12.5μm; 365.3 +/- 19.3 μm, respectively (Proximal vs Distal: P&lt;0.001; Middle vs Distal: P&lt;0.05). Nerve elements were present and located both inside and on the surface of the IM, whereas the mechanoreceptors are mainly located on the surface of the IM. Free nerve endings (33.3 +/- 5.0/cm<sup>2</sup>) and Ruffini corpuscles (3.4 +/- 0.6/cm<sup>2</sup>) were the predominant sensory elements, while Pacinian corpuscles (1.3 +/- 0.7/cm<sup>2</sup>) were rarely found. The type of mechanoreceptors found suggests that the IM may play a role in proprioception.</p> Joseph Morley Chenglei Fan Kena McDermott Caterina Fede Emmett Hughes Carla Stecco ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-09 2019-08-09 29 3 10.4081/ejtm.2019.8340 A global approach for plantar fasciitis with extracorporeal shockwaves treatment <p>Extracorporeal Shockwaves Treatment is considered an effective therapeutic option for plantar fasciitis, but the standard application in the medial insertion of the plantar fascia on the calcaneus has provided ambiguous evidences. In this case, a 63-year man with plantar fasciitis was treated in a 3-session program and Foot and Ankle Outcome Scale and Foot Functional Index questionnaires were chosen for the clinical outcome evaluation. The therapy was focused on the active trigger or myofascial points of the leg, thigh and pelvis in order to return the correct equilibrium of the myofascial system of the whole limb. The patient has already reported an improvement after the second session (FAOS: 76 vs 33, FFI: 85%) which was confirmed in the third one and in the 1-month follow up (FAOS: 79, FFI: 6%) Results suggest that plantar fasciitis may be due to proximal rigidity or tension of the fascia and a global approach using ESWT may have a similar or better outcome respect to the standard application.</p> Federico Giordani Andrea Bernini Hannes Müller-Ehrenberg Carla Stecco Stefano Masiero ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-09-09 2019-09-09 29 3 10.4081/ejtm.2019.8372 Stiffness and echogenicity: Development of a stiffness-echogenicity matrix for clinical problem solving <p>The assessment of soft tissue stiffness is important to evaluate many neuromusculoskeletal conditions. Several tools have been proposed for the assessment of stiffness, but ultrasonography appears to be most practical. The reflection of ultrasound waves as it travels through tissue enables assessment of tissue echogenicity, which is influenced by the characteristics of the sound wave as well as the characteristics of the tissue through which it passes, such as the amount of fat and fibrous tissue. However, tissue stiffness is not directly proportional to its echogenicity. Hence evaluation of echogenicity, as a stand-alone technique, is inadequate to describe its mechanical properties. The aim of this manuscript is to present a method of combining echogenicity evaluation by ultrasound and stiffness evaluation by palpation to better describe the mechanical properties of muscle using a stiffness-echogenicity matrix.</p> Antonio Stecco Carmelo Pirri Raffaele De Caro Preeti Raghavan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-09-12 2019-09-12 29 3 10.4081/ejtm.2019.8476 Fascial organisation of motor synergies: a hypothesis <p>In the field of biomechanics and motor control understanding movement coordination is paramount. Motor synergies represent the coordination of neural and physical elements embedded in our bodies in order to optimize the solutions to motor problems. Although we are able to measure and quantify the movement made manifested, we do not have confidence in explaining the anatomical bases of its organisation at different levels. It is our contention that the flexible hierarchical organization of movement relies on the fascial structurers to create functional linkages at different levels, and this concept attunes with the neural control of synergies. At the base of movement organization there is a (somatic) equilibrium point that exists on the fascia where the neurologically- and mechanically-generated tensions dynamically balance out. This somatic equilibrium point is at the base of postural control, afferent flow of information to the nervous system about the state of the muscles, and of the coordinative pre-activation of muscular contraction sequences specific for a synergy. Implications are discussed and suggestions for research and clinical applications are made.</p> Alessandro Garofolini Daris Svanera ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-08 2019-08-08 29 3 10.4081/ejtm.2019.8313 Fascial neuromodulation: an emerging concept linking acupuncture, fasciology, osteopathy and neuroscience <p>According to Traditional Chinese Medicine “acupuncture is believed to restore the balance between Yin and Yang” and this can be understood in the Western medicine terminology as a “modulation of the equilibrium between parasympathetic and sympathetic activity”. The vast majority of studies concerning the mechanisms of action of acupuncture have been conducted on its influence on pain, and it has been proposed that acupuncture may indirectly relieve chronic pain by its effects on autonomic nervous system function. Several studies have shown that acupuncture recruits brain networks involved in the integration of multiple other brain functions: for example, the limbic-paralimbic-neocortical network, which plays a major role in modulating the affective dimensions of pain processing and the integration of emotional, sensorimotor, autonomic and immunological functions. It has been recently proposed that mechanical signaling through the connective tissue, along with transmission of the matrix deformation through the fascial system network, can explain the therapeutic effect of acupuncture. This model of acupunture, which involves the transduction of mechanical signals through the connective planes and produces a secondary involvement of neurophysiological mechanism, appears to fit very closely to the ancient model. It is also compatible with the proposed neurophysiological explanation. Furthermore, it appears to be fruitful also in manual therapy approaches. Drawing on the basis of the “Fascial network hypothesis of meridians”, in which there is an overlap between the channels network described by Traditional Chinese Medicine and the newly-defined fascial system, I propose an intervention through a combination of acupoints that have been selected due to their relationship between “extraordinary acupuncture channels”, the myofascial sequences described by Stecco, and the emotional and adaptive function as contemplated by a psychosomatic model used in posturology. This intervention is aimed at treating both stress and postural imbalance.</p> Gianluca Bianco ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-27 2019-08-27 29 3 10.4081/ejtm.2019.8331 Novel management of glioma by molecular therapies, a review article <p>The most frequent type of brain tumors is Glioma which commonly appears initially in the neuroglia in the central nervous system. They grow steadily and generally do not outspread to neighboring tissue of the brain. By applying dominant remedial regimens, the patients would have negligible survival rates. Despite the achieved advances in conventional glioma therapy, it proved that a proper medication for glioma is not easily reachable. The glioma penetration nature and accumulate resistance considerably limit the remedial options. Superior explanation of the glioma complex pathobiology and characterization of biological proteogenomic may finally open new approaches for the outlining of extra artificial and impressive combination regimens. This aim could be achieved by exclusively outfitting advanced techniques of neuroimaging, terminating synthesis of DNA via genes that activated via prodrugs, experimental technique of gene therapy via conciliating genes of gliomagenesis, targeting miRNA-mRNA activity of oncogenic, applying stem cell therapy for combining inhibitors of Hedgehog-Gli, adaptive transmission of chimeric immunoreceptors T cells, incorporate inhibitors of regulators of the immune system with conventional remedial modalities and additionally using tumor cell lysates as sources of antigen for efficient evacuation of particular stem cells of tumor via cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Consequently, in this study the authors trying to survey the latest progressions related to the molecular procedures connected with the formation of glial tumors in addition to the radiation, surgery and chemotherapy limitations. Additionally, the novel strategies of molecular remedies and their procedure for the prosperous treatment of glioma will be discussed.</p> Amin Alinezhad Fatemeh Jafari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-21 2019-08-21 29 3 10.4081/ejtm.2019.8209 Hypnotherapy in management of delivery pain: a review <p>Hypnosis in obstetrics is available for more than one hundred years, but the development of inhalational anesthetic and chemotherapy agents and anesthesia drugs pending the 19th century induced the decrement of its application. However, experimental assessment of this type of intervention on labor and delivery in not high yet. For this reason, evaluation of hypnotic techniques in preparing childbirth should be carried out. One of the main unified mind-body healing practices, which has a great remedial potential in different applications of health care like labor and delivery. Assessment of effectiveness of this procedure in various administered trials is not easy, due to methodologic challenges, like normalizing trial conditions and picking up sufficient sizes of sample. Applying techniques of hypnosis for childbirth within hospital settings makes women to easily overcome barriers associated with institutional policies or caregiver resistance. Potential analgesic and anxiolytic clinical hypnosis effects for childbirth deserve more clinical trials. In this regard, nurses who manage women pending labor and delivery could easily enhance their skills and related understandings for contributing to techniques of hypnotherapy.</p> Susan Azizmohammadi Sima Azizmohammadi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-27 2019-08-27 29 3 10.4081/ejtm.2019.8365 Master World Records show minor gender differences of performance decline with aging <p>Aging behaviours are significantly different in females and males, e.g., the former have a longer life expectancy, but consistently a weaker muscle force. Our purpose is to analyse possible gender-differential declines of skeletal muscle performance. The method to find out the decline of performances with aging is based on a parametric analysis of the World Records of Master athletes in different Track and Field events. The analysis is a transformation (normalization) of sports results into dimensionless parameters ranging from the maximum value of 1 (for the absolute world record) to decreasing values with decreasing performances. Master athletes compete in age groups of 5 years till the age of 100 years, thus their World Records are lists of up to 16 data. Results of the normalization procedure are trend-lines indicating that the decline starts not later than the age of thirty years for both women and women. The decline with aging of the muscle performances indicates only minor gender differences in the aging process and all trend-lines tend to zero at about the age of 110 years. The approach, making use of a homogeneous cohort of testers, gets rid of the main confounding factors biasing other kind of studies of the muscle performance decline with aging, in particular clinical studies. Comparing normalized female and male World Records of Master athletes, a surprise emerged: aging decline is very similar, if not identical, the unique exception to the general rule of gender differences in sports activities. The substantial identity of decline trends among females and males suggests that neuro-hormonal differences among genders poorly influence the aging decline, being conceivably related to fundamental cell bioregulators, such as those of cellular energy metabolism and/or their epigenetic regulatory mechanisms.</p> Paolo Gava Barbara Ravara ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-02 2019-08-02 29 3 10.4081/ejtm.2019.8327 Effects of a vibrational proprioceptive stimulation on recovery phase after maximal incremental cycle test <p>Global Proprioceptive Resonance (GPR) is a recently developed approach conceived to solicit the various cutaneous mechanoreceptors, through application of mechanical multifocal vibration at low amplitude and at definite body sites, limiting the stimulation of the profound structures. This interventional study evaluated the effects of GPR on cardiorespiratory function during the post-exertional recovery period. A group of volunteers involved in Triathlon (a multisport discipline consisting of sequential swim, cycle, and run disciplines higly demanding in terms of metabolic engagment), underwent two maximal incremental exercise tests until exhaustion followed alternatively to (a) a 13 minutes section of GPR or (b) a standard low intensity exercise acute trend of the same duration. These effects of these two approaches were compared in terms of recovery of: heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) and venous lactate concentration (Lac). The physiological parameters (HR, RR, SpO2 and Lac) recorded in the pre-exertion session showed similar values between the 40 volunteers while several differences were recorded in the post-exertion phase. After 6 min of GPR recovery it was recorded a drop in RR below baseline (19.4±4.15 min-1 vs. 12.2± 0.4 min-1; p&lt;0.001) coupled with an increase in peripheral oxygen saturation above the baseline (GPR: 99.0%±0.16% vs. 96.6%±0.77%, p&lt;0.001). Moreover, the most striking result was the drop in lactate concentration measured after 13 min of GPR recovery: 84.5±3.5% in GPR vs 2.9±7.6% reduction in standard recovery (p&lt;0.001). Notably no differences were recorded recovery of heart rate. GPR has promising effects on post-exercise recovery on RR, SpO2 and lactate level on young athletes.</p> Francesco Coscia Paola V. Gigliotti Alexander Piratinskij Tiziana Pietrangelo Vittore Verratti Saadsaoud Foued Igor Diemberger Giorgio Fanò-Illic ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-27 2019-08-27 29 3 10.4081/ejtm.2019.8373 Ether-a-go-go related gene-1a potassium channel abundance varies within specific skeletal muscle fiber type <p>The ERG1A K<sup>+</sup> channel, which is partially responsible for repolarization of the cardiac action potential, has also been reported in skeletal muscle where it modulates ubiquitin proteolysis. Because ERG1A protein appears variably expressed in muscles composed of mixed fiber types, we hypothesized that its abundance in skeletal muscle might differ with fiber type. Indeed, skeletal muscle fibers vary in speed of contraction (fast or slow), which is mainly determined by myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoform content, but a sarcolemmal K<sup>+</sup> channel might also modulate contraction speed. To test our hypothesis, we cryo-sectioned <em>Soleus</em> (SOL), <em>Extensor</em> <em>Digitorum Longus</em> (EDL), and <em>Gastrocnemius</em> muscles from five rats. These muscles were chosen because the SOL and EDL contain an abundance of slow- and fast-twitch fibers, respectively, while the <em>Gastrocnemius</em> has a more heterogeneous composition. The muscle sections were co-immunostained for the ERG1A protein and either the fast- or slow-twitch MyHC to identify fiber type. ERG1A fluorescence was then measured in the sarcolemma of each fiber type and compared. The data reveal that the ERG1A protein is more abundant in the fibers of the SOL than in the EDL muscles, suggesting ERG1A may be more abundant in the slow than the fast fibers, and this was confirmed with immunoblot. However, because of the homogeneity of fiber type within these muscles, it was not possible to get enough data from both fiber types within a single muscle to compare ERG1A composition within fiber type. However, immunohistochemistry of sections from the fiber type heterogeneous <em>Gastrocnemius</em> muscle reveals that slow fibers had, on average, a 17.2% greater ERG1A fluorescence intensity than fast fibers (p&lt;0.03). Further, immunoblot reveals that ERG1A protein is 41.6% more abundant (p=0.051) in old than in young rat <em>Gastrocnemius</em> muscle. We postulate that this membrane bound voltage-gated channel may affect membrane characteristics, the duration of the action potential generated, and/or the speed of contraction. Indeed, ERG1A protein is more abundant in aged and atrophic skeletal muscle, both of which exhibit slower rates of contraction.</p> Luke B. Anderson Chase D. Latour Omar Khader Bryce H. Massey Brittan Cobb Amber L. Pond ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-09-12 2019-09-12 29 3 10.4081/ejtm.2019.8402 Orofacial muscles activity in children with swallowing dysfunction and removable functional appliances <p>Swallowing dysfunction is a frequent disorder among children and refers to an altered tongue posture and abnormal tongue movement during swallowing. Removable functional appliance is one of the treatments applied by dentistry to correct this disorder. The aim of this study was to evaluate any differences on orofacial muscles activity in children with swallowing dysfunction with and without removable functional appliances. 68 children were eligible for the study and divided into the orthodontic group (OG) and the no-orthodontic group (NO-OG). Both groups performed a dental occlusion-class evaluation, a swallowing function test and a myoscan analysis in order to measure perioral forces (i.e. tongue extension force, lip pressure, masseter contraction force). Our results showed a significant difference (P=0.02) between OG and NO-OG for the tongue extension force, whereas no significant differences (P&gt;0.05) were found for the other parameters. Our findings suggest that children with swallowing dysfunction and removable functional appliance show orofacial muscles activity within the range of reference values (except for the lip pressure). However, we hypothesize that orthodontic treatment can achieve more effective results with integration of myofunctional therapy.</p> Giuseppe Messina Valerio Giustino Francesco Martines Serena Rizzo Alessio Pirino Fabio Scoppa ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-27 2019-08-27 29 3 10.4081/ejtm.2019.8267 Therapeutic effects of iNOS inhibition against vitiligo in an animal model <p>Nitric oxide (NO) is involved in several biological processes, but its role in human melanogenesis and vitiligo need further studies. Previous studies revealed that exposure to UVA and UVB were capable of the inducing nitric oxide production in keratinocytes and melanocytes through the activation of constitutive nitric oxide synthase, whereas inducible nitric oxide synthase overexpression has been reported to play an important role in hyperpigmentary disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate iNOS inhibitor aminoguanidine (AG) as a therapeutic agent in our mouse model of vitiligo. In this study, male C57BL/6J Ler-vit/vit mice were purchased to evaluate the effect of iNOS inhibitor (aminoguanidine) (50 and 100 mg/kg) and L-arginine (100 mg/kg) in a mouse model of vitiligo induced by monobenzone 40%. Moreover, we used phototherapy device to treat the mice with NBUVB as a gold standard.The findings revealed that monobenzone was capable of inducing depigmentation after 6 weeks. However, aminoguanidine in combination with monobenzone was decrease the effect of monobenzone, while L-arginine play a key role in promoting the effect of monobenzone (P&lt;0.001). Based on the phototherapy, the efficacy of phototherapy significantly increased by adding L-arginine (P&lt;0.05). Taken together, we suggest that iNOS inhibitor can be a novel treatment for the prevention and treatment of vitiligo by combination of NBUVB therapy, furthermore; NO agents like L-arginine could also increase the effectiveness of phototherapy. Taken together, this pilot study showed significant repigmentation of vitiligous lesions treated with iNOS inhibitor plus NBUVB therapy, where other aspect including expression of an inducible iNOS, NO and TNF levels remained to be evaluated in mice model.</p> Hamid Mansourpour Katayoun Ziari Sahar Kalantar Motamedi Amin Hassan Poor ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-06 2019-08-06 29 3 10.4081/ejtm.2019.8383 Comparison between ultrasonographic findings and fine needle aspiration cytology in differentiating malignant and benign thyroid nodules <p>The purpose of research was comparing the ultrasound (US) features and fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in detecting the thyroid nodules in clinical practice. A cross-sectional analytical study retrospectively reviewed the US and FNAC findings for a total of 170 thyroid nodules. The US features that we compared included echogenicity, calcifications, shape, halo and Doppler, between 2017 and 2018. Totally, 170 nodules of thyroid were studied, which contained 72 (42.4%) benign and 98 (57.6%) malignant thyroid nodules. The sonographic features were significantly associated with malignancy such as microcalcification (97.0%), hyperechogenicity (91.5%), wider than taller shape (98.0%), absent halo (90.9%) and positive Doppler (78.0%) (P &lt; 0.01). The altogether accuracies of calcification, echogenicity, shape, halo, and Doppler were 0.96, 0.92, 0.97,0.82 and 0.82, respectively. Our data suggest that US features could be a good sonographic criterion for recommending FNA cytology with follow‐up thyroid sonography and FNA.</p> Mahdi Mohebbi Mehrzad Gholampour Dehaki Mahsa Mozaffari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-06 2019-08-06 29 3 10.4081/ejtm.2019.8354 Seasonal variations of 25-OH vitamin D serum levels in Multiple Sclerosis patients with relapse using MRI <p>An increasing body of evidence suggests that low vitamin D (25-[OH]-D) concentrations is linked to increased activity in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and MS relapse. Therefore, the current study was aimed to evaluate vitamin D serum concentrations and its possible seasonal variations among MS patients with relapse. This prospective, descriptive study was conducted on patients with MS relapse who referred to the neurology center of Ali ibn Abi Talib Hospital in Zahedan during one year. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)-Spine was performed for 90 patients and serum samples were collected from patient to measure serum vitamin D levels using RIA KIT. Furthermore, the plaques in each patient's MRI were counted and then recorded. Descriptive and inductive statistics were conducted using statistical software. Our findings indicated a significant correlation between serum vitamin D level and cervical spinal cord plaques (p = 0.007, r = 0.28), while no association was revealed between serum vitamin D level and number of brain plaque. Furthermore, a significant association was also observed between number of cervical spinal cord plaques and serum vitamin D levels. In addition, a reverse correlation was observed between number of cervical spinal cord plaques and serum vitamin D levels in spring. In autumn, there was a statistically significant relationship between number of brain plaque and serum vitamin D level. Additionally, a statistically significant relationship was found between serum vitamin D levels and number of plaques in winter. Our findings are in agreement with some previous studies that reported conflicting result, where the association of season with the prevalence of relapse cases cannot be verified. Although the mean serum levels of vitamin D are inversely correlated with the incidence of relapses in winter. However, the values obtained in the spring do not confirm such an inverse relationship.</p> Sharareh Sanei Sistani Ali Moghtaderi Ali Reza Dashipoor Maryam Ghaffarpoor Bahareh Heshmat Ghahderijani ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-08 2019-08-08 29 3 10.4081/ejtm.2019.8361 Dietary diversities score and anthropometric characteristics in Iranian elementary school children <p>Dietary diversity scoring is a good method to assess quality of individual's diet. The study aimed to investigate the association between dietary diversity and body mass index among elementary school students in the south of Tehran, Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted on elementary school students, age range of 7-12 years old, in 2015. Data were collected using a personal information questionnaire and three 24-h recall questionnaires. Dietary diversity score was calculated from the number of food groups in these questionnaires. A total of 536 students, 258 (48.1%) female and 278 (51.9%) male, were recruited in the study. The mean age of the students was 9.43 ± 1.73 years. Seafood consumption was more frequent and beans was lower frequent in students at higher BMI (≥95th percentile) than the other children (34% vs 25% and 71% vs 83%, respectively, p&lt;0.05). However, the statistical analysis failed to find significant relationships between children’s body mass index (BMI) with consumption of diary, vegetable, fruits, protein, fat, and junk food intake. The association between children's BMI with seafood and beans consumption confirmed in multivariate analysis (OR= 1.50 and 0.52, respectively, p&lt;0.05). The study finding showed that seafood and beans consumption may influence on elementary student BMI.</p> Mohsen Jafari Anahita Izadi Paniz Dehghan Sayed Yousef Mojtahedi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-26 2019-08-26 29 3 10.4081/ejtm.2019.8339