European Journal of Translational Myology <p>The <strong> European Journal of Translational Myology </strong>(formerly known as <em>Basic and Applied Myology</em>) is the European reference forum for Translational Myology. </p><p>The <strong> European Journal of Translational Myology</strong> is a multifaceted journal studying myology from various perspectives: basic, cellular and molecular, genetic, clinical, and translational proper.</p> PAGEPress Scientific Publications, Pavia, Italy en-US European Journal of Translational Myology 2037-7452 PAGEPress has chosen to apply the <a href="" target="_blank">Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial 4.0 License</a> (CC BY-NC 4.0) to all manuscripts to be published. <br /> <br /> An Open Access Publication is one that meets the following two conditions:<br /> <br /> 1. The author(s) and copyright holder(s) grant(s) to all users a free, irrevocable, worldwide, perpetual right of access to, and a license to copy, use, distribute, transmit and display the work publicly and to make and distribute derivative works, in any digital medium for any responsible purpose, subject to proper attribution of authorship, as well as the right to make small numbers of printed copies for their personal use.<br /> 2. A complete version of the work and all supplemental materials, including a copy of the permission as stated above, in a suitable standard electronic format is deposited immediately upon initial publication in at least one online repository that is supported by an academic institution, scholarly society, government agency, or other well-established organization that seeks to enable open access, unrestricted distribution, interoperability, and long-term archiving.<br /> <br /> Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms: 1. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal. 2. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal. 3. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work. Reporting for Duty: The duty cycle in Functional Electrical Stimulation research. Part I: Critical commentaries of the literature There are several parameters that can be modulated during electrical stimulation-induced muscle contraction to obtain external work, i.e., Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES). The literature has several reports of the relationships of parameters such as frequency, pulse width, amplitude and physiological or biomechanical outcomes (i.e., torque) when these parameters are changed. While these relationships are well-described, lesser known across the literature is how changing the duty cycle (time ON and time OFF) of stimulation affects the outcomes. This review provides an analysis of the literature pertaining to the duty cycle in electrical stimulation experiments. There are two distinct sections of this review – an introduction to the duty cycle and definitions from literature (part I); and contentions from the literature and proposed frameworks upon which duty cycle can be interpreted (part II). It is envisaged that the two reviews will highlight the importance of modulating the duty cycle in terms of muscle fatigue in mimicking physiological activities. The frameworks provided will ideally assist in unifying how researchers consider the duty cycle in electrical stimulation (ES) of muscles. Matthew J. Taylor Ché Fornusek Andrew J. Ruys ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-07 2018-11-07 28 4 10.4081/ejtm.2018.7732 The duty cycle in Functional Electrical Stimulation research. Part II: Duty cycle multiplicity and domain reporting In part I of this review, we introduced the duty cycle as a fundamental parameter in controlling the effect of electrical stimulation pulse trains on muscle structural and functional properties with special emphasis on fatigue. Following on from a survey of the literature, we discuss here the relative ability of intermittent and continuous stimulation to fatigue muscle. In addition, pertinent literature is explored on a more deeper level, highlighting contentions regarding the duty cycle across studies. In response to literature inconsistencies, we propose frameworks upon which the duty cycle parameter may be specified. We present the idea of domain reporting for the duty cycle, and illustrate with practical examples. In addition we dig further into the literature and present a set of notations that have been used by different researchers to report the duty cycle. We also propose the idea of the duty cycle multiple, which together with domain reporting, will help researchers understand more precisely duty cycles of electrical stimulation. As a case study, we also show how the duty cycle has been looked at by researchers in the context of pressure sore attenuation in patients. Together with part I, it is hoped that the frameworks suggested provide a complete picture of how duty cycle has been discussed across the literature, and gives researchers a more trans-theoretical basis upon which they may report the duty cycle in their studies. This may also lead to a more precise specification of electrical stimulation protocols used in patients. Matthew J. Taylor Ché Fornusek Andrew J. Ruys ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-07 2018-11-07 28 4 10.4081/ejtm.2018.7733 Myokines in Home-Based Functional Electrical Stimulation-Induced Recovery of Skeletal Muscle in Elderly and Permanent Denervation Neuromuscular disorders, disuse, inadequate nutrition, metabolic diseases, cancer and aging produce muscle atrophy and this implies that there are different types of molecular triggers and signaling pathways for muscle wasting. Exercise and muscle contractions may counteract muscle atrophy by releasing a group of peptides, termed myokines, to protect the functionality and to enhance the exercise capacity of skeletal muscle. In this review, we are looking at the role of myokines in the recovery of permanent denervated and elderly skeletal muscle tissue. Since sub-clinical denervation events contribute to both atrophy and the decreased contractile speed of aged muscle, we saw a parallel to spinal cord injury and decided to look at both groups together. The muscle from lifelong active seniors has more muscle bulk and more slow fiber-type groupings than those of sedentary seniors, demonstrating that physical activity maintains slow motoneurons that reinnervate the transiently denervated muscle fibers. Furthermore, we summarized the evidence that muscle degeneration occur with irreversible Conus and Cauda Equina syndrome, a spinal cord injury in which the human leg muscles may be permanently disconnected from the peripheral nervous system. In these patients, suffering with an estreme case of muscle disuse, a complete loss of muscle fibers occurs within five to ten years after injury. Their recovered tetanic contractility, induced by home-based Functional Electrical Stimulation, can restore the muscle size and function in compliant Spinal Cord Injury patients, allowing them to perform electrical stimulation-supported stand-up training. Myokines are produced and released by muscle fibers under contraction and exert both local and systemic effects. Changes in patterns of myokine secretion, particularly of IGF-1 isoforms, occur in long-term Spinal Cord Injury persons and also in very aged people. Their modulation in Spinal Cord Injury and late aging are also key factors of home-based Functional Electrical Stimulation - mediated muscle recovery. Thus, Functional Electrical Stimulation should be prescribed in critical care units and nursing facilities, if persons are unable or reluctant to exercise. This will result in less frequent hospitalizations and a reduced burden on patients’ families and public health services. Sascha Sajer Giulio Sauro Guardiero Bianca Maria Scicchitano ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-16 2018-11-16 28 4 10.4081/ejtm.2018.7905 Does the addition of single joint exercises to a resistance training program improve changes in performance and anthropometric measures in untrained men? The present study compared changes in muscle performance and anthropometric measures in young men performing resistance training (RT) programs composed of only multi joint (MJ) exercises, or with the addition of single joint (SJ) exercises (MJ+SJ). Twenty untrained men were randomized to MJ or MJ+SJ groups for 8 weeks. Both groups performed the same MJ exercises. The difference was that the MJ+SJ group added SJ exercises for upper and lower limbs. Participants were tested for 10 repetitions maximum (10RM), flexed arm circumference, and biceps and triceps skinfolds. Both groups significantly increased 10RM load for the bench press (MJ 38.5%, MJ+SJ 40.1%), elbow extension (MJ 28.7%, MJ+SJ 31.9%), pull down (MJ 34.0% MJ+SJ 38.5%), elbow flexion (MJ 38.2%, MJ+SJ 45.3%), leg press (MJ 40.8%, MJ+SJ 46.8%) and knee extension (MJ 26.9%, MJ+SJ 32.9%), with no significant difference between them. The decreases in biceps (MJ -3.6%, MJ+SJ –3.9%) and triceps (MJ –3.4%, MJ+SJ -3.3%) skinfolds were significant for both groups, with no difference between them. However, the flexed arm circumference increased significantly more for MJ+SJ (5.2%), than for MJ (4.0%). The use of SJ exercises as a complement to a RT program containing MJ exercises brings no additional benefit to untrained men in terms of muscle performance and skinfold reduction, though it promoted higher increases in arm circumference. Matheus Barbalho Victor Silveira Coswig Rodolfo Raiol James Steele James P. Fisher Antonio Paoli Antonino Bianco Paulo Gentil ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-02 2018-11-02 28 4 10.4081/ejtm.2018.7827 Color Doppler sonography of the aortic isthmus in intrauterine growth-restricted fetuses and normal fetuses Intrauterine growth restriction is associated with a significant increase in morbidity and perinatal mortality, and increases the likelihood of fetal death, asphyxia, meconium aspiration, hypoglycemia, and neonatal hypothermia. The aim of this study was to determine aortic isthmus flow difference by using color doppler sonography in Intrauterine growth restriction and normal fetuses. The data presented were obtained from 30 mothers, who referred to the radiology department of Akbarabadi Hospital of Tehran with a diagnosis of intrauterine growth restriction. An ultrasound was performed to determine the status of placenta, fetus, and amniotic fluid. The umbilical arterial doppler assessment was used to confirm diagnosis of intrauterine growth restriction. Thirteen (43.3%) were nulliparous mothers and 17 (56.7%) were multiparous mothers. 30 pregnant women with healthy fetuses were enrolled as control group. According to the ultrasound findings, Dactus Venus wave type was recorded in intrauterine growth restriction fetuses, which was reported as normal (26 subjects; 86.7%) and abnormal (4 subjects; 13.3%). All together, this study provides appropriate guidance to use doppler for delivery timing and to control risk factors. Ladan Younesi Mostafa Ghadamzadeh Zeinab Safarpour Lima Ghazaleh Amjad ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-02 2018-11-02 28 4 10.4081/ejtm.2018.7773 Ultrasound screening at 11-14 weeks of pregnancy for diagnosis of placenta accreta in mothers with a history of cesarean section The aim of this study was to add ultrasonographic screening criteria for placenta accreta in patients with cesarean section history at 11-14 weeks of gestation in order to identify those with the high risk of placenta accreta. Consequently, using ultrasound follow-up and confirmation of diagnosis can reduce mortality and morbidity. Pregnant mothers who were referred for routine screening for ultrasonography at 11–14 weeks of gestation were enrolled in the study if they had a history of cesarean section. Of the 184 subjects who were included in the study, 23 of the low-risk groups were excluded from study for some reason such as miscarriage and a lack of required information on the time of delivery. Among the 152 subjects, 27 were classified in the high-risk group (17.7%) and 125 subjects in the low-risk group (82.3%). Only one case in the high risk group was identified in patients with placenta accreta by ultrasound and clinical diagnosis, which has undergone a cesarean section at the gestational age of 35 weeks. There was no relationship between placenta accreta and disease risk, placenta previa, cesarean section, maternal age, and gravidity. Therefore, placenta accreta screening using ultrasonography can identify high-risk individuals at week 14-11 and with subsequent follow-up for improving prenatal prognosis. Ladan Younesi Zahra Karimi Dehkordi Zeinab Safarpour Lima Ghazaleh Amjad ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-02 2018-11-02 28 4 10.4081/ejtm.2018.7772