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Measuring system and method of determining the Adaptive Force

Laura Schaefer, Marko Hoff, Frank Bittmann
  • Marko Hoff
    Section Regulative Physiology and Prevention, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, University of Potsdam, Brandenburg, Germany
  • Frank Bittmann http://orcid.org/0000-0003-4514-8060
    Section Regulative Physiology and Prevention, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, University of Potsdam, Brandenburg, Germany

Abstract

The term Adaptive Force (AF) describes the capability of adaptation of the nerve-muscle-system to externally applied forces during isometric and eccentric muscle action. This ability plays an important role in real life motions as well as in sports. The focus of this paper is on the specific measurement method of this neuromuscular action, which can be seen as innovative. A measuring system based on the use of compressed air was constructed and evaluated for this neuromuscular function. It depends on the physical conditions of the subject, at which force level it deviates from the quasi isometric position and merges into eccentric muscle action. The device enables – in contrast to the isokinetic systems – a measure of strength without forced motion. Evaluation of the scientific quality criteria of the devices was done by measurements regarding the intra- and interrater-, the test-retest-reliability and fatiguing measurements. Comparisons of the pneumatic device with a dynamometer were also done. Looking at the mechanical evaluation, the results show a high level of consistency (r²=0.94 to 0.96). The parallel test reliability delivers a very high and significant correlation (ρ=0.976; p=0.000). Including the biological system, the concordance of three different raters is very high (p=0.001, Cronbachs alpha α=0.987). The test retest with 4 subjects over five weeks speaks for the reliability of the device in showing no statistically significant differences. These evaluations indicate that the scientific evaluation criteria are fulfilled. The specific feature of this system is that an isometric position can be maintained while the externally impacting force rises. Moreover, the device can capture concentric, static and eccentric strength values. Fields of application are performance diagnostics in sports and medicine.

Keywords

Adaptive Force, isometric eccentric force, muscle action, motor control, strength measurement system

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Submitted: 2017-01-03 19:01:50
Published: 2017-07-20 09:57:27
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Copyright (c) 2017 Laura V Schaefer, Marko Hoff, Frank N Bittmann

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