Cover Image

Nutrition, pharmacological and training strategies adopted by six bodybuilders: case report and critical review

Paulo Gentil, Claudio Andre Barbosa de Lira, Antonio Paoli, José Alexandre Barbosa dos Santos, Roberto Deivide Teixeira da Silva, José Romulo Pereira Junior, Edson Pereira da Silva, Rodrigo Ferro Magosso
  • Claudio Andre Barbosa de Lira
    College of Physical Education and Dance, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, Brazil
  • Antonio Paoli
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Padova, Padova, Italy
  • José Alexandre Barbosa dos Santos
    ENAF Desenvolvimento Serviços Educacionais, Boa Vista, Brazil
  • Roberto Deivide Teixeira da Silva
    ENAF Desenvolvimento Serviços Educacionais, Boa Vista, Brazil
  • José Romulo Pereira Junior
    ENAF Desenvolvimento Serviços Educacionais, Boa Vista, Brazil
  • Edson Pereira da Silva
    ENAF Desenvolvimento Serviços Educacionais, Boa Vista, Brazil
  • Rodrigo Ferro Magosso
    Post Graduation Program in Movement Sciences, UNESP – Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rio Claro, Brazil


The purpose of this study was to report and analyze the practices adopted by bodybuilders in light of scientific evidence and to propose evidence-based alternatives. Six (four male and two female) bodybuilders and their coaches were directly interviewed. According to the reports, the quantity of anabolic steroids used by the men was 500–750 mg/week during the bulking phase and 720–1160 mg during the cutting phase. The values for women were 400 and 740 mg, respectively. The participants also used ephedrine and hydrochlorothiazide during the cutting phase. Resistance training was designed to train each muscle once per week and all participants performed aerobic exercise in the fasted state in order to reduce body fat. During the bulking phase, bodybuilders ingested ~2.5 g of protein/kg of body weight. During the cutting phase, protein ingestion increased to ~3 g/kg and carbohydrate ingestion decreased by 10–20%. During all phases, fat ingestion corresponded to ~15% of the calories ingested. The supplements used were whey protein, chromium picolinate, omega 3 fatty acids, branched chain amino acids, poly-vitamins, glutamine and caffeine. The men also used creatine in the bulking phase. In general, the participants gained large amounts of fat-free mass during the bulking phase; however, much of that fat-free mass was lost during the cutting phase along with fat mass. Based on our analysis, we recommend an evidence-based approach by people involved in bodybuilding, with the adoption of a more balanced and less artificial diet. One important alert should be given for the combined use of anabolic steroids and stimulants, since both are independently associated with serious cardiovascular events. A special focus should be given to revisiting resistance training and avoiding fasted cardio in order to decrease the reliance on drugs and thus preserve bodybuilders’ health and integrity.


Steroids; Skeletal muscle hypertrophy; Bodybuilding; Resistance training

Full Text:

Submitted: 2016-08-27 00:33:00
Published: 2017-03-24 11:02:02
Search for citations in Google Scholar
Related articles: Google Scholar
Abstract views:


Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM

Copyright (c) 2017 ANTONIO PAOLI

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
© PAGEPress 2008-2018     -     PAGEPress is a registered trademark property of PAGEPress srl, Italy.     -     VAT: IT02125780185     •     Privacy