Age above 70 years and Charlson Comorbidity Index higher than 3 are associated with reduced survival probabilities after radical cystectomy for bladder cancer. Data from a contemporary series of 334 consecutive patients
Objective: To assess the joint effect of age and comorbidities on clinical outcomes of radical cystectomy (RC).
Methods: 334 consecutive patients undergoing open RC for bladder cancer (BC) during the years 2005-2015 were analyzed. Pre-, peri- and post-operative parameters, including age at RC (ARC) and Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), were evaluated. Overall and cancer-specific survivals (OS, CSS) were assessed by univariate and multivariate modelling. Furthermore, a three-knot restricted cubic spline (RCS) was fitted to survival data to detect dependency between death-rate ratio (HR) and ARC.
Results: Median follow-up time was 3.8 years (IQR = 1.3-7.5) while median OS was 5.9 years (95%CL = 3.8-9.1). Globally, 180 patients died in our cohort (53.8%), 112 of which (62.2%) from BC and 68 patients (37.8%) for unrelated causes. After adjusting for preoperative, pathological and perioperative parameters, patients with CCI > 3 showed significantly higher death rates (HR = 1.61; p = 0.022). The highest death rate was recorded in ARC = 71-76 years (HR = 2.25; p = 0.034). After fitting an RCS to both OS and CSS rates, two overlapping nonlinear trends, with common highest risk values included in ARC = 70-75 years, were observed.
Conclusions: Age over 70 years and CCI > 3 were significant factors limiting the survival of RC and should both be considered when comparing current RC outcomes.
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