Role of the gonadal vessels on the stone lodgment in the proximal ureter: Direct observation during laparoscopic ureterolithotomy

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Mohammad Hadi Radfar *
Reza Valipour
Behzad Narouie
Mehdi Sotoudeh
Hamid Pakmanesh
(*) Corresponding Author:
Mohammad Hadi Radfar |


Introduction: Previous radiological studies revealed that stones lodge more frequently in the ureterovesical junction (UVJ) as well as the proximal ureter. Factors that prevent stone passage from the proximal ureter are not well studied. Aim: To explore the site of the lodged stones in the proximal ureter with direct observation during laparoscopic ureterolithotomy. Materials and methods: Between November 2014 and February 2015, we included 26 patients including 18 men and 8 women with stones larger than 10 millimeters in the proximal ureter who were candidate for laparoscopic ureterolithotomy. We prospectively recorded the site of the lodged stones in the ureter during laparoscopic ureterolithotomy in relation with the sites of ureteral stenosis as well as the gonadal vessels. Results: Among 26 patients with ureteral stone, in 19 cases stone was found close to the gonadal vein compared with seven cases that stone was in other locations of the ureter (p = 0.02). The characteristics of patients and stones were not different in cases that the stone was close to gonadal vessels compared with other locations. Conclusions: This study showed that most of the stones lodged in the proximal ureter were in close proximity with gonadal vessels. Gonadal vessels may be an extrinsic cause of ureteral narrowing.

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