Resistance of uropathogens to antibacterial agents: Emerging threats, trends and treatments

  • Gianpaolo Perletti | Department of Biotechnology and Life Sciences, Section of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Università degli Studi dell'Insubria, Varese, Italy; Faculty of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
  • Vittorio Magri Urology Secondary Care Clinic, ASST-Nord, Milan, Italy.
  • Tommaso Cai Department of Urology, Santa Chiara Regional Hospital, Trento, Italy.
  • Konstantinos Stamatiou Department of Urology, Tzaneio General Hospital of Piraeus, Piraeus, Greece.
  • Alberto Trinchieri Urology Unit, A. Manzoni Hospital, Lecco, Italy.
  • Emanuele Montanari Department of Urology, University of Milan - Ca' Granda Foundation - Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy.


Urinary tract infections are among the most common infectious diseases in humans. Today, resistance to nearly all antimicrobial classes is dramatically growing, and extremely drug-resistant or even pan-drug resistant pathogens are increasingly isolated around the world. It is foreseen that in the next decades the world will be facing a major medical emergency generated by the rapid spread of pathogens carrying resistance determinants of unprecedented power. Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, multidrug- resistant Enterococci and fluoroquinolone resistance determinants in both Gram-negative and Gram-positive uropathogens are among the greatest emergencies. In this article, the major emerging threats of particular interest to urologists are reviewed, worldwide resistance trends are illustrated, and novel and older – but still active – recommended drugs are summarized.


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Urinary tract infections, Resistance, Antibacterial agents, Antibiotics, Carbapenemase, Carbapenem resistance
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How to Cite
Perletti, G., Magri, V., Cai, T., Stamatiou, K., Trinchieri, A., & Montanari, E. (2018). Resistance of uropathogens to antibacterial agents: Emerging threats, trends and treatments. Archivio Italiano Di Urologia E Andrologia, 90(2), 85-96.

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