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Objective: The aim of this study was to enlighten both the testicular histology and the genetic aspects of the apoptotic process. Thus an experimental study was designed with a model of unilateral vasectomy. Methods: Twenty-two adult male rats were used and 4 main groups were formed. The first (A), the second (B), the third (C), and the fourth group (D) consisted of 4, 4, 4 and 10 rats respectively. Rats in group A had sham operation while rats in other groups (B, C, D) underwent left vasectomy operation including binding of ductus deferens with a 3/0 silk and cutting a minimum of 1 cm part while preserving the vascular structure under 9x magnification. Rats undergoing unilateral vasectomy were sacrificed at the 1st, 2nd and 8th weeks and their testicular structure and proapoptotic gene proteins were compared with that of the control group undergoing sham operation. Results: We found that vasectomy gradually caused destruction and both ipsilateral and contralateral testicles were affected showing initial apoptosis. Conclusion: The procedure causes destruction in the testicular structure by causing bilateral intratubular germ cell necrosis, unilateral obstruction, increase in the tubular pressure and processes that are aggravated by some probable autoimmune reactions.
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