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Background: To analyze the characteristics of the patients with diagnosis of spontaneous retroperitoneal hematoma associated with anticoagulation therapy and antiplatet therapy. Methods: From January 2006 to March 2013, 9 patients (6 from Haseki Training and Research Hospital - Urology Department and 3 from Istanbul Medical Faculty - Gynecology and Obstetric Department) were included in the study. Patients charts including sex, age, comorbidities, main complaint, and medication intake were examined. Also initial hemoglobin level, initial International Normalized Ratio level, red blood cells and fresh frozen plasma units transfused were evaluated. Results: Median age was 60 year-old. Abdominal pain and flank pain were common symptoms. Eight patients were taking only anticoagulation therapy, 2 only antiplatet therapy and 1 both anticoagulation and antiplatet therapy. Median initial hemoglobin value was 9,0 g/dL and median International Normalized Ratio level was 3.2 Patients were evaluated by abdominal ultrasonography or abdominal computer tomography. Seven patients were treated conservatively. Only one patient died because of septic shock with a mortality ratio of 11%. Conclusion: Despite benefits of anticoagulation and antiplatet theraphy these agents have serious side-affects as retroperitoneal hemorrhage in elderly patients taking multi-drug medication.
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