Empiric antibiotics therapy for mildly elevated prostate specific antigen: Helpful to avoid unnecessary biopsies?

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Andrea Fandella
Sara Benvenuto
Elisa Guidoni
Marco Giampaoli
Alessandro Bertaccini *
(*) Corresponding Author:
Alessandro Bertaccini | alessandro.bertaccini@gmail.com


Purpose: The management of mildly elevated (4.0-10.0 ng/ml) prostate specific antigen (PSA) is uncertain. Immediate prostate biopsy, antibiotic treatment, or monitoring PSA level for 1-3 months is still in controversy. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively analysed the effect of empiric antibiotics on an increased PSA in a mono-institutional study. We analysed the data of 100 patients with a PSA of 4-10 ng/ml and normal digital rectal examination undergoing their first prostate biopsy. Patients were divided in two different cohorts. One cohort was submitted to antibiotic therapy (Levoxacin 500 mg daily for 20 days) and both cohort had a re-dosing of PSA before the prostate biopsy. Results: Average age of the whole group of patients was 66.48 ± 8.32 years and their average initial PSA level was 6.67 ± 1.57 ng/mL. In the treated group (N = 49) 29 patients had a decreasing PSA value from mean baseline PSA value of 6.6 ± 1.54 ng/ml to the re-dosed mean PSA level of 5.4 ± 1,61 ng/ml (p = 0.7); 20 patients didn’t experience a decrease PSA value, with a mean PSA level of 6.9 ± 1.68 ng/ml. In the control group (N = 51), 30 patients had a decrease of PSA level from mean baseline PSA level of 6.5 ± 1,59 ng/ml to a re-dosed PSA level of 5.5 ± 1.57 ng/ml; 21 patients didn’t experience a decrease of PSA value, with a mean PSA level of 6.7 ± 1.71 ng/ml. Multivariate analysis of age, PSA changes, antibiotics therapy and biopsy results (presence or absence of cancer) revealed no significant difference between the two cohorts. Sepsis after biopsy occurred in 3 patient in the antibiotics group (6%) and in one of the control group (2%). Conclusions: The study, even with some limitations, does not seem to show an advantage due to the administration of antibacterial therapy to reduce PSA values before prostate biopsy and subsequently to reduce unnecessary prostate biopsies.

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