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Objectives: To determine whether there are differences in sperm parameters improvement after different varicocele correction techniques. To determine the role of age in sperm parameters improvement. Methods: 2 different European centers collected pre- and postoperative sperm parameters of patients undergoing varicocele correction. Among 463 evaluated patients, 367 were included. Patients were divided in procedure-related and age-related groups. Ivanissevich inguinal open surgical procedure (OS), lymphatic-sparing laparoscopic approach (LSL) and retrograde percutaneous transfemoral sclerotization (RPS) were performed. As outcome measurements sperm count (millions/mL, SC) and percentage of mobile sperms were analyzed. Univariate and multivariate regression between the defined groups; bivariate regression analysis between age and sperm count and motility. Results: Number of patients: OS 78; LSL 85; RPS 204. Mean age 30.2 (SD 6.83); postoperative SC increased from 18.2 to 30.1 (CI 95% 27.3-32.9; p < 0,001); motility from 25.6 to 32.56% (30.9-34.2; p < 0.001). OS: SC varied from 16.9 to 18.2 (p < 0.001); sperm motility from 29% to 33% (p < 0.001). LSL: SC from 15.5 to 17.2 (p < 0.001); motility from 27 to 31% (p < 0.001). RPS: SC from 18.9 to 36.2 (p < 0.001); motility from 24% to 32% (p < 0.001). Univariate and multivariate analysis confirmed the significant difference of SC variation in RPS, compared to the other groups (p < 0.001). No significance between LSL and OS (p = 0.826). No significant differences regarding motility (p = 0.8). Conclusions: Varicocele correction is confirmed useful in improving sperm parameters; sclerotization technique leads to a better sperm improvement compared to other studied procedures; improvement in seminal parameters is not affected by age of the patients treated.
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