Advances in Oceanography and Limnology <p><strong>Advances in Oceanography and Limnology</strong>&nbsp;(<em>AIOL Journal</em>) is the official publication of the <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Italian Association of Limnology and Oceanology</a> (A.I.O.L.).</p> <p>The <em>AIOL Journal </em>publishes original research articles and reviews on different topics and novel discoveries in the fields of limnology and oceanography. Papers may deal with different or single physical, chemical and biological aspects, including biomolecules, populations and communities, ecosystem functioning and interactions between global change and ecosystems. Environmental monitoring and studies of regional importance will be considered only if they contribute to the general advance of aquatic sciences. Multidisciplinary articles linking different scientific disciplines (e.g., community ecology and metabolomic/toxicology, ecology and phylogenetic, water quality and economy…) are equally considered. Particularly welcomed are studies focusing on marine and freshwater ecosystems.</p> <p>Two regular issues of the <strong>Advances in Oceanography and Limnology</strong> are published each year. In addition, Special Issues and Proceedings that focus on topics that are timely and of interest to a significant number of aquatic scientists are published. From 2010 to 2014, previous issues of the <em>AIOL Journal</em> have been published by&nbsp;<a href="">T&amp;F</a>.</p> <p>This journal does not apply charge for publication to Authors as it is supported by institutional funds.</p> en-US <p><strong>PAGEPress</strong> has chosen to apply the&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial 4.0 International License</strong></a>&nbsp;(CC BY-NC 4.0) to all manuscripts to be published.<br><br> An Open Access Publication is one that meets the following two conditions:</p> <ol> <li class="show">the author(s) and copyright holder(s) grant(s) to all users a free, irrevocable, worldwide, perpetual right of access to, and a license to copy, use, distribute, transmit and display the work publicly and to make and distribute derivative works, in any digital medium for any responsible purpose, subject to proper attribution of authorship, as well as the right to make small numbers of printed copies for their personal use.</li> <li class="show">a complete version of the work and all supplemental materials, including a copy of the permission as stated above, in a suitable standard electronic format is deposited immediately upon initial publication in at least one online repository that is supported by an academic institution, scholarly society, government agency, or other well-established organization that seeks to enable open access, unrestricted distribution, interoperability, and long-term archiving.</li> </ol> <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ol> <li class="show">Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.</li> </ol> (Nadia Moscato) (Tiziano Taccini) Tue, 12 May 2020 14:00:58 +0000 OJS 60 Spatial diversity of planktonic protists in the Lagoon of Venice (LTER-Italy) based on 18S rDNA <p>Transitional waters are subject to a high degree of variability in space and time. In this study, protist plankton communities of the Lagoon of Venice were compared among four sites characterised by different environmental conditions with a metabarcoding approach. High throughput sequencing (HTS) of the V4-18S rDNA fragment in 32 samples collected on four dates, from April 2016 to February 2017, produced 1,137,113 reads, which were grouped into 4,058 OTUs at 97% similarity. Bacillariophyta and Ciliophora were the most abundant groups in the entire dataset in terms of read number (27.6% and 16.6%, respectively), followed by Dinophyta (10.9%), Cryptophyceae (9.7%), and Syndiniales (6.1%). The contribution of protist groups markedly varied across the seasons, but spatial differences were also recorded in the lagoon. In April, a higher contribution of Bacillariophyta characterized St1 and 5 (68.0% and 61.1%), whereas Sts2 and 3 showed a higher percentage of Ciliophora (18.6 and 23.4%, respectively) and dinoflagellates (10.3 and 7.7%). In July, diatom blooms occurred at Sts1, 2 and 3, with some differences in the dominant species. At St2 Dinophyta reached the highest contribution of the whole sampling period in the area (30.6%), while St5 was quite distinct, with a low contribution of diatoms and a dominance of Ciliophora (34.0%) and Trebouxiophyceae (36.4%). All the stations in November were characterized by relatively high abundance of Ciliophora (21.4-51.9%). In February, diatom contribution was relevant only at St5 (29.3%), <em>Teleaulax acuta</em> peaked at St3 (ca. 36%), Syndiniales at St2 (38.8%) and Dictyochophyceae at St1 (24.2%).&nbsp; The α-diversity indexes (observed OTUs, Shannon and Pielou evenness) showed a high variability over space and time. Overall, diversity and community composition were rather similar between the intermediate and deeper Sts2 and 3 on all sampling dates whereas they at time differed between the landward and shallow Sts1 and 5. While the most marked differences occurred over the temporal scale, the depth of the station and the relatedness with the external marine coastal environment appear to play a major role in the spatial distribution of protist communities within the lagoon.</p> Simona Armeli Minicante, Roberta Piredda, Stefania Finotto, Fabrizio Bernardi Aubry, Francesco Acri, Alessandra Pugnetti, Adriana Zingone ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 29 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Isolation and identification of halophilic and halotolerant bacteria from the sediments of the Qeshm Island mangrove forest <p>Due to specific environmental and ecological conditions, mangrove forests are known as marine transitional zones between sea and land, and, as such, they host organisms with high ecological plasticity. The mangrove forests of Qeshm Island (Iran) are relatively pristine habitats and represent an ideal target for investigating patterns of either aquatic or benthic biodiversity. To provide insights on microbial diversity in this area, nineteen halophilic and halotolerant bacteria were isolated from the sediments in 2017 during low tide. The extracted bacterial strains were studied morphologically by streaking, initial observation of colonies and bacterial staining, and characterized using a battery of biochemical tests including KOH, MR, VP, urease, TSI, S/I/M, Mac, LIA, ODC, ADH, oxidase, catalase, and tryptophan deaminase. The optimum growth of halophilic bacteria was observed in salt concentrations from 5 to 20% NaCl, whereas the extreme halophilic Gram-positive strain grew in salt concentration of up to 30% NaCl. Molecular analyses were also carried out on four halophilic strains and one extreme halophilic gram-positive bacteria. Phylogenetic taxonomy analysis, after 16S rDNA gene Sanger sequencing, revealed that the halophilic bacteria were closely related to the strain types of the genus <em>Bacillus</em> including <em>Bacillus licheniformis</em>, <em>Bacillus velezensis</em>, <em>Bacillus Paralicheniformis </em>and <em>Bacillus</em> sp. with 99% bootstrap value. The extreme halophilic strain was associated to strains of <em>Planococcus plakortidis</em> with 100% bootstrap value.</p> Pegah Javid, Hassan Zadabbas Shahabadi, Homeyra Amirkhani, Narges Amrollahi, Mohammad Sharif Ranjbar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 12 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Co-occurrence of anatoxin-a and microcystins in Lake Garda and other deep subalpine lakes <p>Cyanotoxins are a global concern in freshwaters and eutrophication and climate changes can have synergistic effects in exacerbating the problem. Deep Subalpine Lakes (DSL) are a group of lakes of huge economic and naturalistic importance in Italy. Together with eutrophication (occurred during 1960s and 1970s) and re-oligotrophication (from 1990 onward) these lake have been experiencing warming and increase of the water column stability. These changes have influenced the phytoplankton (comprised the cyanobacteria) community of the lakes. Four DSL lakes (Lakes Garda, Iseo, Como and Lugano) have been studied with the aim of comparing their toxic potential. For one of them (Lake Garda) an 8 years survey was conducted, allowing a long term trend analysis. Toxin analysis was conducted on a monthly basis by targeted LC-MS/MS. A screening for anatoxins, cylindrospermopsins, saxitoxins, microcystins (MCs) and nodularins was carried out. Among all the listed toxins, only one anatoxin and five MCs were detected in the lakes. In particular, the alkaloid Anatoxin-a (ATX) was found dominant Lakes Garda, Iseo and Como and absent in lake Lugano; the MC-[D-Asp3]RR was found as the most abundant MC in all four lakes. Four other minoritary MCs were also found. The two major toxins are produced by two different cyanobacteria (<em>Tychonema bourrellyi</em> and <em>Planktothrix rubescens</em>) which have however similar ecological traits. Peaks of these toxins occur in warmer months (typically between May and September) in the thermocline layer (around 20 m, in the considered lakes). In summer 2016, the highest concentrations of ATX and total microcystins (MCs) were registered in Lake Iseo (1100 and 430ngL<sup>-1</sup>, respectively), while in the other lakes values were approximately twice lower. In the lakes where it is present, ATX peak levels are much higher than MCs, thus highlighting the necessity of considering ATX in the procedures of risk assessment. The importance of ATX is expected to further grow in the future with respect to MCs, as demonstrated by the long term trend analysis carried out in Lake Garda that showed a clear decline for MCs from 2009 till 2016 and a relative constancy for ATX.</p> Leonardo Cerasino, Nico Salmaso ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 12 May 2020 12:53:31 +0000 Implementation of the EU ecological flow policy in Italy with a focus on Sardinia <p>River ecosystems are characterised by a naturally high level of hydrodynamic perturbations which create aquatic-terrestrial habitats indispensable for many species, as well as for the human beings' welfare. Environmental degradation and habitat loss caused by increasing anthropogenic pressures and global change affect freshwater aquatic ecosystems worldwide and have caused changes in water flow regimes and channels morphologies. These, in turn, decreased the natural flow capacity and reduced habitat availability, thus causing severe degradation of rivers' ecological integrity. The ecological flow (e-flow) is commonly intended as the quantity, timing, duration, frequency and quality of water flows required to sustain freshwater, estuarine and near‐shore ecosystems and the human livelihoods and well‐being. Maintaining the e-flow represents a potential tool for restoring and managing river ecosystems, to preserve the autochthonous living communities, along with environmental services and cultural/societal values. In the last decade, methods for the determination of the e-flow in European rivers moved from a simply hydrological approach towards establishing a linkage between the hydrological regime and the good ecological status (GES) of the water bodies, as identified by the European Water Framework Directive (WFD; 2000/60/EC). Each Member State is required to implement and integrate into the River Basin Management Plans (RBMP) a methodology for the determination of the e-flow, ensuring that rivers can achieve and maintain the GES. The competent river basin authorities have thus to ascertain whether national methodologies to can be applied to different river typologies and basin environment characteristics. In this context, we narratively review the e-flow assessments in the heterogeneous Italian territory, in particular on a water scant region such as Sardinia, by analysing laws, guidelines and focusing on study cases conducted with micro and meso-scale hydraulic-habitat approaches. In the sight of a more ecological-based application of national e-flow policy, we suggest that meso-habitat methods provide a valuable tool to overcome several limitations of current e-flow implementation in the Italian territory. However, to face future challenges, such as climate change adaptation, we stress the need for further experimental studies to update water management plans with greater attention for nature conservation.</p> Davide Moccia, Luca Salvadori, Simone Ferrari, Alessandra Carucci, Antonio Pusceddu ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 09 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000