Background: In the last 30 years mini-invasive surgery (MIS) has been widely used becoming an important and irreplaceable method, safe and highly reliable, in both the diagnostic and therapeutic treatment, for a variety of conditions in both the child and the newborn. This has led to a significant increase of the use of this approach in the pediatric population under the age of 3 years, with results similar to the open techniques.
Materials and Methods: At the Department of Surgery, Medicine and Neuroscience at the University of Siena we conducted a retrospective study of patients aged less than three years of life underwent minimally invasive procedures. The clinical information was extrapolated from a prospective database. They included all patients treated from June 2003 to October 2014. Were considered for each patient demographics, associated diseases, surgical procedure, MIS approach, the instruments used, the duration of surgery and hospitalization, intraoperative and postoperative complications (early and late).
Results: From a total of 933 minimally invasive procedures, 150 (16%) were performed under the age of 3 years. The 76% of patients were males, 24% were females. Twenty-two patients (15%) presented associated diseases. 53 (35%) were diagnostic procedures, 97 (65%) were therapeutic procedures. We treated: 1 3 esophageal atresia, 1 diaphragmatic hernia, 1 congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation (CCAM), 8 stenosis of the ureteropelvic junction , 2 disorders of sexual differentiation (DSD), 20 inguinal hernias, 75 cases of non-palpable testis, 15 cases of Hirschsprung disease, 10 cases of fundoplication, 4 cases of ovarian tumors, 6 cases of nephrectomy, 4 cases of eminefrectomy and 1 case of thymoma. In total we performed 6 (4%) thoracoscopic procedures, 18 (12%) in retroperitoneoscopy and 126 (84%) in laparoscopy. 55 procedures (37%) were performed in "one-trocar" technique. Among the remaining 95 (67%), in 62 (41%) we used a “3 mm” instruments, in 18 (12%) “5 mm” instruments and in 15 (14%) they were mixed (3/5 mm). The duration of the procedure was an average of 59 minutes (range: 20-135 minutes) in diagnostic procedures and 184 minutes (range: 40-370 minutes) in the therapeutic procedures. We converted to an open technique in 14/150 (9%). We reported no postoperative complication and incidentaloma no intraoperative complications. The following is 100% survival.
Conclusions:MIS is probably the most important change that has taken place in the field of Pediatric Surgery in the last 30 years. The optimum benefits are to be found in the lesser surgical stress, the lower cavity contamination, the magnification of details, the reduced hospital stay, reduced morbidity or the best aesthetic result.
Mini-invasive surgery; thoracoscopy; retroperitoneoscopy